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ER9tTY 9f 





The Science and Art of 






Copyright 1921, by 

All Rights Reserved 

First Printing, . June, 1921 
Second Printing, August, 1981 
Third Printing, . . Dec. 19tl 
Fourth Printing . Dec., 1923 

Printed in the United States of America 




The author and the publishers acknowledge with grati- 
tude the following permissions to make use of copyright 
material in this work: 

Messrs. D. C. Heath & Company, for permission to quote 
from "Unified Mathematics," by Louis C. Karpinski, Harry 
Y. Benedict and John W. Calhoun. 

Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, for 
permission to quote from "Organism as a Whole" and "Phys- 
iology of the Brain," by Jacques Loeb. 

Messrs. Harper & Brothers, for permission to quote from 
"From the Life, Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished 
Americans," by Harvey O'Higgins. 

Messrs. D. Appleton & Company, for permission to quote 
from "Corporation Finance," by E. S. Mead. 

Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Company, for permission to 
quote from "Forced Movements," by Jacques Loeb. 

Princeton University Press, for permission to quote from 
"Heredity and Environment," by Edwin Grant Conklin. 

Columbia University Press, for permission to quote from 
"The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking," by C. J. 

The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, for per- 
mission to quote from The Journal of Experimental Medi- 
cine, Vol. 27. 

The New School for Social Research, for permission to 
quote from "An Outline of the History of the Western 
European Mind," by James Harvey Robinson. 

The Engineering Magazine Company, for permission to 
quote from "Mastering Power Production," by Walter N. 


book is primarily a study of Man and ulti- 
mately embraces all the great qualities and prob- 
lems of Man. As a study of Man it takes into consider- 
ation all the characteristics which make Man what he 
is. If some readers do note the absence of certain 
expressions familiar to them, it does not mean that 
the author does not feel or think as many other peo- 
ple he does and very much so; but in this book 
an effort has been made to approach the problem of 
Man from a scientific-mathematical point of view, 
and therefore great pains have been taken not to 
use words insufficiently defined, or words with many 
meanings. The author has done his utmost to use 
such words as convey only the meaning intended, 
and in the case of some words, such as "spiritual," 
there has been superadded the word "so-called," not 
because the author has any belief or disbelief in such 
phenomena ; there is no need for beliefs because some 
such phenomena exist, no matter what we may think 
of them or by what name we call them ; but because 
the word "spiritual" is not scientifically defined, and 
every individual understands and uses this word in 
a personal and private way. To be mpersonal the 


author has had to indicate this element by adding 
"so-called." I repeat once again that this book is 
not a "materialistic" or a "spiritualistic" book it is 
a study of "Man" and therefore does and should 
include materialistic as well as spiritual phenomena 
because only the complex of these phenomena con- 
stitutes the complex of Man. 

The problem has not been approached from the 
point of view of any private doctrine or creed, but 
from a mathematical, an engineering, point of view, 
which is impersonal and passionless. It is obvious 
that to be able to speak about the great affairs of 
Man, his spiritual, moral, physical, economic, social 
or political status, it must first be ascertained what 
Man is what is his real nature and what are the 
basic laws of his nature. If we succeed in finding 
the laws of human nature, all the rest will be a com- 
paratively easy task the ethical, social, economic 
and political status of Man should be in accord with 
the laws of his nature; then civilization will be a 
human civilization a permanent and peaceful one - 
not before. 

It is useless to argue if electricity be "natural" or 
"jwpmiatural," of "material" or of "spiritual" 
origin. As a matter of fact we do not ask these 
questions in studying electricity; we endeavor to find 
out the natural laws governing it and in handling 
live wires we do not argue or speculate about them 


we use rubber gloves, etc. It will be the same with 
Man and the great affairs of Man we have, first 
of all, to know what Man is. 

Though this book has been written with scrupu- 
lous care to avoid words or terms of vague mean- 
ing and though it often may seem coldly critical 
of things metaphysical, it has not been written 
with indifference to that great, perhaps the greatest, 
urge of the human heart the craving for spiritual 
truth our yearning for the higher potentialities of 
that which we call "mind," "soul" and "spirit" but 
it has been written with the deep desire to find the 
source of these qualities, their scientific significance 
and a scientific proof of them, so that they may be 
approached and studied by the best minds of the 
world without the digressions, and misinterpreta- 
tions that are caused by the color and the confusion 
of personal emotions ; and if the book be read with 
care, it will be seen that, though the clarifying defini- 
tion of the classes of life has been chiefly used in 
the book for its great carrying power in the practical 
world, its greatest help will ultimately be in guiding 
the investigation, the right valuation and especially 
the control and use of the higher human powers. 

In writing this book I have been not only intro- 
ducing new ideas and new methods of analysis, but 
I have been using a tongue new to me. The original 
manuscript was very crude and foreign in form, and 


I am greatly indebted to various friends for their 
patient kindness in correcting the many errors of my 
poor English. 

I am also under great obligations to Walter 
Polakov, Doctor of Engineering, for his exceedingly 
helpful suggestions, not only in giving me a thorough 
criticism from the point of view of the Engineer, but 
also in devoting his energies to organizing the first 
"Time-binding Club" where these problems have 
been discussed and criticized, with great practical 

To all those who have read and criticized the 
manuscript or helped otherwise Professors E. H. 
Moore, C. J. Keyser, J. H. Robinson, Burges John- 
son, E. A. Ross, A. Petrunkevitch ; and Doctors J. 
Grove-Korski, Charles P. Steinmetz, J. P. War- 
basse; Robert B. Wolf, Vice-President of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers ; Champlain L. 
Riley, Vice-President of the American Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engineers; Miss Josephine 
Osborn; to the authors, L. Brandeis, E. G. Conklin, 
C. J. Keyser, J. Loeb, E. S. Mead, H. O'Higgins, 
W. Polakov, J. H. Robinson, R. B. Wolf, for their 
kind permission to quote them, I wish to express my 
sincere appreciation. 

I wish also to acknowledge the deepest gratitude 
to my wife, formerly Mira Edgerly, who has found 
in this discovery of the natural law for the human 


class of life, the solution of her life long search, and 
who, because of her interest in my work, has given 
me incomparably inspiring help and valuable criti- 
cism. It is not an exaggeration to state that except 
for her steady and relentless work and her time, 
which saved my time, this book could not have been 
produced in such a comparatively short time. 

Mr. Walter Polakov of New York City, Indus- 
trial Counsellor and Industrial Engineer in New 
York City, has kindly consented at my request to act, 
with my authority, as my representative to whom 
any further queries should be addressed in my ab- 
sence from America. 

To all other friends who have helped in many per- 
sonal ways I express thankfulness, as I wish also to 
thank John Macrae, Esq., the Vice-President of E. 
P. Button & Co., for his unusual attitude toward 
publishing the book. 

A. K. 

January 17, 1921 
New York City. 




Method and Processes of Approach to a New 

Concept of Life I 



IV. WHAT is MAN? 66 















"For a while he trampled with impunity on laws 
human and divine but, as he was obsessed with the 
delusion that two and two makes five, he fell, at last 
a victim to the relentless rules of humble Arithmetic. 

" Remember, O stranger, Arithmetic is the first of 
the sciences and the mother of safety." 


TT is the aim of this little book to point the way 
to a new science and art the science and art of 
Human Engineering. By Human Engineering I 
mean the science and art of directing the energies 
and capacities of human beings to the advancement 
of human weal. It need not be argued in these times 
that the establishment of such a science the science 
of human welfare is an undertaking of immeasur- 
able importance. No one can fail to see that its 
importance is supreme. 

It is evident that, if such a science is to be estab- 
lished it must be founded on ascertained facts it 
must accord with what is characteristic of Man it 
must be based upon a just conception of what Man 


is upon a right understanding of Man's place in 
the scheme of Nature, 

No one need be told how indispensable it is to 
have true ideas just concepts correct notions of 
the things with which we humans have to deal; 
everyone knows for example, that to mistake solids 
for surfaces or lines would wreck the science and 
art of geometry; anyone knows that to confuse frac- 
tions with whole numbers would wreck the science 
and art of arithmetic; everyone knows that to mis- 
take vice for virtue would destroy the foundation of 
ethics; everyone knows that to mistake a desert 
mirage for a lake of fresh water does but lure the 
fainting traveler to dire disappointment or death. 
Now, it is perfectly clear that of all the things with 
which human beings have to deal, the most important 
by far is Man himself humankind men, women 
and children. It follows that for us human beings 
nothing else can be quite so important as a clear, true, 
just, scientific concept of Man a right understand- 
ing of what we as human beings really are. For it 
requires no great wisdom, it needs only a little re- 
flection, to see that, if we humans radically miscon- 
ceive the nature of man if we regard man as being 
something which he is not, whether it be something 
higher than man or lower we thereby commit an 
error so fundamental and far reaching as to produce 


every manner of confusion and disaster in individual 
life, in community life and in the life of the race. 

The question we have, therefore, to consider first 
of all is fundamentally: What is Man? What is a 
man? What is a human being? What is the defin- 
ing or characteristic mark of humanity? To this 
question two answers and only two have been given 
in the course of the ages, and they are both of them 
current to-day. One of the answers is biological 
man is an animal, a certain kind of animal; the other 
answer is a mixture partly biological and partly 
mythological or partly biological and partly philo- 
sophical man is a combination or union of animal 
with something supernatural. An important part of 
my task will be to show that both of these answers 
are radically wrong and that, beyond all things else, 
they are primarily responsible for what is dismal in 
the life and history of humankind. This done, the 
question remains: What is Man? I hope to show 
clearly and convincingly that the answer is to be found 
in the patent fact that human beings possess in varying 
degrees a certain natural faculty or power or capacity 
which serves at once to give them their appropriate 
dignity as human beings and to discriminate them, 
not only from the minerals and the plants but also 
from the world of animals, this peculiar or charac- 
teristic human faculty or power or capacity I shall 


call the time-binding faculty or time-binding power 
or time-binding capacity. What I mean by time-bind- 
ing will be clearly and fully explained in the course of 
the discussion, and when it has been made clear, the 
question What Is Man ? will be answered by say- 
ing that man is a being naturally endowed with time- 
binding capacity that a human being is a time- 
binder that men, women and children constitute the 
time-binding class of life. 

There will then remain the great task of indicating 
and in a measure sketching some of the important 
j ways in which the true conception of man as man 
will transform our views of human society and the 
world, affect our human conduct and give us a grow- 
ing body of scientific wisdom regarding the welfare 
of mankind including all posterity. 

The purpose of this introductory chapter is to 
consider certain general matters of a preliminary 
nature to indicate the spirit of the undertaking 
to provide a short course of approach and prepara- 
tion to clear the deck, so to speak, and make ready 
for action. 

There are two ways to slide easily through life: 
Namely, to believe everything, or to doubt every- 
thing; both ways save us from thinking. The ma- 
jority take the line of least resistance, preferring to 
have their thinking done for them ; they accept ready- 
made individual, private doctrines as their own and 


follow them more or less blindly. Every generation 
looks upon its own creeds as true and permanent and 
has a mingled smile of pity and contempt for the 
prejudices of the past. For two hundred or more 
generations of our historical past this attitude has 
been repeated two hundred or more times, and unless 
we are very careful our children will have the same 
attitude toward us. 

There can be no doubt that humanity belongs to 
a class of life which to a large extent determines its 
own destinies, establishes its own rules of education 
and conduct, and thus influences every step we are 
free to take within the structure of our social system. 
But the power of human beings to determine their 
own destinies is limited by natural law, Nature's law. 
It is the counsel of wisdom to discover the laws of 
nature, including the laws of human nature, and then 
to live in accordance with them. The opposite is 

A farmer must know the natural laws that govern 
his wheat, or corn, or cow, as otherwise he will not 
have satisfactory crops, or the quality and abundance 
of milk he desires, whereas the knowledge of these 
laws enables him to produce the most favorable con- 
ditions for his plants and animals, and thereby to 
gain the desired results. 

Humanity must know the natural laws for humans, 
otherwise humans will not create the conditions and 


the customs that regulate human activities which will 
make it possible for them to have the most favorable 
circumstances for the fullest human development in 
life; which means the release of the maximum natu- 
ral-creative energy and expression in mental, moral, 
material and spiritual and all the other great fields 
of human activities, resulting in happiness in life and 
in work collectively and individually because the 
conditions of the earning of a livelihood influence and 
shape all our mental processes and activities, the 
quality and the form of human inter-relationship. 

Every human achievement, be it a scientific dis- 
covery, a picture, a statue, a temple, a home or a 
bridge, has to be conceived in the mind first the 
plan thought out before it can be made a reality, 
and when anything is to be attempted that involves 
any number of individuals methods of coordina- 
tion have to be considered the methods which have 
proven to be the best suited for such undertakings 
are engineering methods the engineering of an idea 
toward a complete realization. Every engineer has 
to know the materials with which he has to work 
and the natural laws of these materials, as discovered 
by observation and experiment and formulated by 
mathematics and mechanics ; else he can not calculate 
the forces at his disposal; he can not compute the 
resistance of his materials; he can not determine the 
capacity and requirements of his power plant; is 


short, he can not make the most profitable use of his 
resources. Lately in all industries and particularly 
during the late World War, which was itself a 
gigantic industrial process, another factor manifested 
itself and proved to be of the utmost importance: 
namely, the human factor, which is not material but 
is mental, moral, psychological. It has been found 
that maximum production may be attained when and 
only when the production is carried on in conformity 
with certain psychological laws, roughly determined 
by the analysis of human nature. 

Except for productive human labor, our globe is 
too small to support the human population now upon 
it. Humanity must produce or perish. 

Production is essentially a task for engineers; it 
essentially depends upon the discovery and the ap- 
plication of natural laws, including the laws of 
human nature. It is, therefore, not a task for old 
fashioned philosophical speculation nor for barren 
metaphysical reasoning in vacuo; it is a scientific 
task and involves the coordination and cooperation 
of all the sciences. This is why it is an engineering 

For engineering, rightly understood, is the coor- 
dinated sum-total of human knowledge gathered 
through the ages, with mathematics as its chief in- 
strument and guide. Human Engineering will 
embody the theory and practice -the science and 


art of all engineering branches united by a common 
aim the understanding and welfare of mankind. 

Here I want to make it very clear that mathe- 
matics is not what many people think it is; it is not 
a system of mere formulas and theorems; but as 
beautifully defined by Professor Cassius J. Keyser, 
in his book The Human Worth of Rigorous Think- 
ing (Columbia University Press, 1916), mathe- 
matics is the science of "Exact thought or rigorous 
thinking," and one of its distinctive characteristics 
is "precision, sharpness, completeness of definitions." 
This quality alone is sufficient to explain why people 
generally do not like mathematics and why even some 
scientists bluntly refuse to have anything to do with 
problems wherein mathematical reasoning is in- 
volved. In the meantime, mathematical philosophy 
has very little, if anything, to do with mere calcula- 
tions or with numbers as such or with formulas; it 
is a philosophy wherein precise, sharp and rigorous 
thinking is essential. Those who deliberately refuse 
to think "rigorously" that is mathematically in 
connections where such thinking is possible, commit 
the sin of preferring the worse to the better; they 
deliberately violate the supreme law of intellectual 

Here I have to make it clear that for the purpose 
of Human Engineering the old concepts of matter, 
space and time are sufficient to start with; they are 


sufficient in much the same way as they have been 
sufficient in the old science of mechanics. Figura- 
tively speaking Human Engineering is a higher order 
of bridge engineering it aims at the spanning of a 
gap in practical life as well as in knowledge. The 
old meanings of matter, space and time were good 
enough to prevent the collapse of a bridge ; the same 
understanding of space and time as used in this book 
will protect society and humanity from periodical 
collapses. The old mechanics lead directly to such 
a knowledge of the intrinsic laws governing the uni- 
verse as to suggest the new mechanics. Human 
Engineering will throw a new light on many old 
conceptions and will help the study and understand- 
ing of matter, space and time in their relative mean- 
ings, and perhaps will ultimately lead to an under- 
standing of their absolute meanings. 

Philosophy in its old form could exist only in the 
absence of engineering, but with engineering in exist- 
ence and daily more active and far reaching, the old 
verbalistic philosophy and metaphysics have lost their 
reason to exist. They were no more able to under- 
stand the "production" of the universe and life than 
they are now able to understand or grapple with 
"production" as a means to provide a happier exist- 
ence for humanity. They failed because their vene- 
rated method of "speculation" can not produce, and 
its place must be taken by mathematical think- 


ing. Mathematical reasoning is displacing meta- 
physical reasoning. Engineering is driving verbal- 
istic philosophy out of existence and humanity gains 
decidedly thereby. Only a few parasites and "spec- 
ulators" will mourn the disappearance of their old 
companion "speculation." The world of producers 
the predominating majority of human beings 
will welcome a philosophy of ordered thought and 

The scientists, all of them, have their duties no 
doubt, but they do not fully use their education if 
they do not try to broaden their sense of responsi- 
bility toward all mankind instead of closing them- 
selves up in a narrow specialization where they find 
their pleasure. Neither engineers nor other scientific 
men have any right to prefer their own personal 
peace to the happiness of mankind; their place and 
their duty are in the front line of struggling human- 
ity, not in the unperturbed ranks of those who keep 
themselves aloof from life. If they are indifferent, 
or discouraged because they feel or think that they 
know that the situation is hopeless, it may be proved 
that undue pessimism is as dangerous a "religion" 
as any other blind creed. Indeed there is very little 
difference in kind between the medieval fanaticism 
of the "holy inquisition," and modern intolerance 
toward new ideas. All kinds of intellect must get 
together, for as long as we presuppose the situation 


to be hopeless, the situation will indeed be hopeless. 
The spirit of Human Engineering does not know the 
word "hopeless"; for engineers know that wrong 
methods are alone responsible for disastrous results, 
and that every situation can be successfully handled 
by the use of proper means. The task of engineering 
science is not only to know but to know how. Most 
of the scientists and engineers do not yet realize that 
their united judgment would be invincible; no system 
or class would care to disregard it. Their knowl- 
edge is the very force which makes the life of hu- 
manity pulsate. If the scientists and the engineers 
have had no common base upon which to unite, a 
common base must be provided. To-day the pres- 
sure of life is such that we cannot go forward with- 
out their coordinating guidance. But first there must 
be the desire to act. One aim of this book is to fur- 
nish the required stimulus by showing that Human 
Engineering will rescue us from the tangle of private 
opinions and enable us to deal with all the problems 
of life and human society upon a scientific basis. 

If those who know why and how neglect to act, 
those who do not know will act, and the world will 
continue to flounder. The whole history of mankind 
and especially the present plight of the world show 
only too sadly how dangerous and expensive it is to 
have the world governed by those who do not know. 

In paying the price of this war, we have been made 


to realize that even the private individual can not 
afford to live wrapped up in his own life and not 
take his part in public affairs. He must acquire the 
habit of taking his share of public responsibility. 
This signifies that a very great deal of very simple 
work, all pointing in the direction of a greater work, 
must be done in the way of educating, not engineers 
and scientific men only, but the general public to co- 
operate in establishing the practice of Human Engi- 
neering in all the affairs of human society and life. 

In writing this book I have had to wrestle with 
tremendous difficulties in expressing new thoughts 
and in indicating new methods. The reader who 
stops to criticize words or expressions because of 
their more or less happy or unhappy use will miss 
the whole point of the work. The reading of it 
should be done with a view to seeing how much can 
be found in it of what is new and good that may be 
elaborated further, and put into better form. This 
new enterprise is too difficult and too vast for the 
unaided labor of one man life is too short. 

The method used in this book in analysing life 
phenomena is essentially an engineering method, and 
as physics and mechanics alw?^ suggest to mathe- 
maticians new fields for analysis, it is not improbable 
that Human Engineering will give mathematicians 
new and interesting fields for research. The hum- 
blest role of mathematicians in Human Engineering 


may be likened to that of "Public accountants" whc 
put in order the affairs of business. 

In relation to mathematics Bertrand Russell has 
said: "Logic is the youth of mathematics, mathe- 
matics is the manhood of logic." This brilliant mot 
of the eminent philosopher of mathematics is no 
doubt just and is profoundly significant; the least it 
can teach us is that it is useless to try to find a 
dividing line between logic and mathematics, for no 
such line exists; to seek for one serves merely to 
betray one's ignorance of mathematical philosophy. 
Elsewhere Mr. Russell says: "The hope of satisfac- 
tion to our more human desires, the hope of demon- 
strating that the world has this or that ethical char- 
acteristic, is not one which, so far as I can see, phil- 
osophy can do anything whatever to satisfy." By 
"philosophy" he means mathematical philosophy a 
philosophy that is rigorously scientific, not vaguely 
speculative. I am entirely unable to agree with him 
that such a philosophy can make no contribution to 
ethics. On the contrary, I contend, and in this book 
I hope to show, that by mathematical philosophy, 
by rigorously scientific thinking, we can arrive at the 
true conception of what a human being really is and 
that in thus discovering the characteristic nature of 
man we come to the secret and source of ethics. Ethics 
as a science will investigate and explain the essential 
nature of man and the obligations which the essential 


nature of man imposes upon human beings. It will 
be seen that to live righteously, to live ethically, is to 
live in accordance with the laws of human nature; 
and when it is clearly seen that man is a natural 
being, a part of nature literally, then it will be seen 
that the laws of human nature the only possible 
rules for ethical conduct are no more supernatural 
and no more man-made than is the law of gravita- 
tion, for example, or any other natural law. 

It is no cause for wonder that mathematical think- 
ing should lead to such a result; for Man is a natural 
being, man's mind is a natural agency, and the results 
of rigorous thinking, far from being artificial fictions, 
are natural facts natural revelations of natural 

I hope I have not given the impression, by re- 
peated allusion to mathematical science, that this 
book is to be in any technical sense a mathematical 
treatise. I have merely wished to indicate that the 
task is conceived and undertaken in the mathematical 
spirit, which must be the guiding spirit of Human 
Engineering; for no thought, if it be non-mathe- 
matical in spirit, can be trusted, and, although mathe- 
maticians sometimes make mistakes, the spirit of 
mathematics is always right and always sound. 

Whilst I do not intend to trouble the reader with 
any highly technical mathematical arguments, there 
arc a few simple mathematical considerations which 


anyone of fair education can understand, which are 
of exceedingly great importance for our purpose, 
and to which, therefore, I ask the reader's best atten- 
tion. One of the ideas is that of an arithmetical 
progression; another one is that of a geometrical 
progression. Neither of them involves anything 
more difficult than the most ordinary arithmetic of 
the secondary school or the counting house, but it 
will be seen that they throw a flood of light upon 
many of the most important human concerns. 

Because we are human beings we are all of us 
interested in what we call progress progress in law, 
in government, in jurisprudence, in ethics, in phil- 
osophy, in the natural sciences, in economics, in the 
fine arts, in the practical arts, in the production and 
distribution of wealth, in all the affairs affecting the 
welfare of mankind. It is a fact that all these great 
matters are interdependent and interlocking; it is 
therefore a fact of the utmost importance that prog- 
ress in each of the cardinal matters must keep abreast 
of progress in the other cardinal matters in order to 
keep a just equilibrium, a proper balance, and so to 
maintain the integrity and continued prosperity of 
the whole complex body of our social life; it is a 
fact, a fact of observation, that in some of the great 
matters progress proceeds in accordance with one 
law and one rate of advancement and in others in 
accordance with a very different law and rate; it is 


a fact, a fact of observation and sad experience, a 
fact attested by all history and made evident by rea- 
son, that owing to the widely differing laws and rates 
of progress in the great essential concerns of human- 
ity, the balance and equilibrium among the parts is 
disturbed, the strain gradually increases until a vio- 
lent break ensues in the form of social conflicts, 
insurrections, revolutions and war; it is a fact that 
the readjustment that follows, as after an earth- 
quake, does indeed establish a kind of new equilib- 
rium, but it is an equilibrium born of violence, and 
it is destined to be again disturbed periodically with- 
out end, unless by some science and art of Human 
Engineering progress in all the great matters essen- 
tial to human weal can be made to proceed in accord- 
ance with one and the same law having its validity 
in the nature of man. 

Taken in combination, the facts just stated are so 
extremely important that they deserve to be stated 
with the utmost emphasis and clarity. To this end 
I beg the reader to consider very carefully and side 
by side the two following series of numbers. The 
first one is a simple geometrical progression 
denoted by (GP) ; the second one is a simple arith- 
metical progresson denoted by 

GP : 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, etc.; 
AP : 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, etc. 


For convenience of comparison I let them begin 
with the same number and for simplicity I have 
taken 2 for this initial term; observe that in the 
(GP) each term is got from the preceding term by 
multiplying by 2 and that in the (dP] each term 
as got from its predecessor by adding 2 ; in the first 
series the multiplier 2 is called the common ratio and 
in the second series the repeatedly added 2 is called 
the common difference; it is again for the convenience 
of comparison that I have chosen the same number 
for both common ratio and common difference and 
for the sake of simplicity that I have taken for this 
number the easy number 2. Other choices would 
be logically just as good. 

Why have I introduced these two series ? Because 
they serve to illustrate perfectly two widely different 
laws of progress two laws representing vastly dif- 
ferent rates of growth, increase, or advancement. 

Do not fail to observe in this connection the fol- 
lowing two facts. One of them is that the magni- 
tude of the terms of any geometric progression whose 
ratio (no matter how small) is 2 or more will over- 
take and surpass the magnitude of the correspond- 
ing terms of any arithmetical progression, no matter 
how large the common difference of the latter may 
be. The other fact to be noted is that the greater 
the ratio of a geometric progression, the more 
rapidly do its successive terms increase; so that the 


terms of one geometric progression may increase a 
thousand or a million or a billion times faster than 
the corresponding terms of another geometric pro- 
gression. As any geometric progression (of ratio 
equal to 2 or more), no matter how slow, outruns 
every arithmetic progression, no matter how fast, 
so one geometric progression may be far swifter 
than another one of the same type. 

To every one it will be obvious that the two pro- 
gressions differ in pace; and that the difference be- 
tween their corresponding terms becomes increas- 
ingly larger and larger the farther we go; for in- 
stance, the sum of the first six terms of the geomet- 
rical progression is 126, whereas the sum of the first- 
six terms of the arithmetical progression is only 42, 
the difference between the two sums being 84; the 
sum of 8 terms is 510 for the (GP) and 72 for 
the (AP}, the difference between these sums (of only 
8 terms each) being 438, already much larger than 
before; if now we take the sums of the first 10 terms, 
they will be 2046 and no having a difference of 
1936; etc., etc. 

Consider now any two matters of great impor- 
tance for human weal jurisprudence for example, 
and natural science or any other two major con- 
cerns of humanity. It is as plain as the noon-day 
sun that, if progress in one of the matters advances 
according to the law of a geometric progression and 


the other in accordance with a law of an arithmetical 
progression, progress in the former matter will very 
quickly and ever more and more rapidly outstrip 
progress in the latter, so that, if the two interests 
involved be interdependent (as they always are), a 
strain is gradually produced in human affairs, social 
equilibrium is at length destroyed; there follows a 
period of readjustment by means of violence and 
force. It must not be fancied that the case supposed 
is merely hypothetical. The whole history of man- 
kind and especially the present condition of the world 
unite in showing that far from being merely hypothet- 
ical, the case supposed has always been actual and is 
actual to-day on a vaster scale than ever before. My 
contention is that while progress in some of the great 
matters of human concern has been long proceeding 
in accordance with the law of a rapidly increasing 
geometric progression, progress in the other matters 
of no less importance has advanced only at the rate 
of an arithmetical progression or at best at the rate 
of some geometric progression of relatively slow 
growth. To see it and to understand it we have to 
pay the small price of a little observation and a little 

Some technological invention is made, like that of 
a steam engine or a printing press, for example; or 
some discovery of scientific method, like that of 
analytical geometry or the infinitesimal calculus; or 


some discovery of natural law, like that of falling 
bodies or the Newtonian law of gravitation. What 
happens? What is the effect upon the progress of 
knowledge and invention? The effect is stimulation. 
Each invention leads to new inventions and each dis- 
covery to new discoveries; invention breeds inven- 
tion, science begets science, the children of knowledge 
produce their kind in larger and larger families; the 
process goes on from decade to decade, from genera- 
tion to generation, and the spectacle we behold is that 
of advancement in scientific knowledge and techno- 
logical power according to the law and rate of a 
rapidly increasing geometric progression or loga- 
rithmic function. 

And now what must we say of the so-called sci- 
ences the pseudo sciences of ethics and jurispru- 
dence and economics and politics and government? 
For the answer we have only to open our eyes and 
behold the world. By virtue of the advancement 
that has long been going on with ever accelerated 
logarithmic rapidity in invention, in mathematics, in 
physics, in chemistry, in biology, in astronomy and 
in applications of them, time and space and matter 
have been already conquered to such an extent that 
our globe, once so seemingly vast, has virtually 
shrunken to the dimensions of an ancient province; 
and manifold peoples of divers tongues and tradi- 
tions and customs and institutions are now con- 


strained to live together as in a single community. 
There is thus demanded a new ethical wisdom, a 
new legal wisdom, a new economical wisdom, a new 
political wisdom, a new wisdom in the affairs of gov- 
ernment. For the new visions our anguished times 
cry aloud but the only answers are reverberated 
echoes of the wailing cry mingled with the chattering 
voices of excited public men who know not what to 
do. Why? What is the explanation? The ques- 
tion is double: Why the disease? And why no rem- 
edy at hand? The answer is the same for both. And 
the answer is that the so-called sciences of ethics and 
jurisprudence and economics and politics and gov- 
ernment have not kept pace with the rapid progress 
made in the other great affairs of man; they have 
lagged behind; it is because of their lagging that the 
world has come to be in so great distress; and it is 
because of their lagging that they have not now 
the needed wisdom to effect a cure. 

Do you ask why it is that the "social" sciences 
the so-called sciences of ethics, etc. have lagged 
behind? The answer is not far to seek nor difficult 
to understand. They have lagged behind, partly 
because they have been hampered by the traditions 
and the habits of a bygone world they have looked 
backward instead of forward; they have lagged be- 
hind, partly because they have depended upon the 
barren methods of verbalistic philosophy they 


have been metaphysical instead of scientific; they 
have lagged behind, partly because they have been 
often dominated by the lusts of cunning "politicians" 
instead of being led by the wisdom of enlightened 
statesmen; they have lagged behind, partly because 
they have been predominantly concerned to protect 
"vested interests," upon which they have in the main 
depended for support; the fundamental cause, how- 
ever, of their lagging behind is found in the aston- 
ishing fact that, despite their being by their very 
nature most immediately concerned with the affairs 
of mankind, they have not discovered what Man 
really is but have from time immemorial falsely re- 
garded human beings either as animals or else as 
combinations of animals and something supernatural. 
With these two monstrous conceptions of the essen- 
tial nature of man I shall deal at a later stage of this 

At present I am chiefly concerned to drive home 
the fact that it is the great disparity between the 
rapid progress of the natural and technological 
sciences on the one hand and the slow progress of 
the metaphysical, so-called social "sciences" on the 
other hand, that sooner or later so disturbs the 
equilibrium of human affairs as to result periodically 
in those social cataclysms which we call insurrec- 
tions, revolutions and wars. The reader should note 
carefully that such cataclysmic changes such 
"jumps," as we may call them such violent read- 


justments in human affairs and human relationships 
are recorded throughout the history of mankind. 
And I would have him see clearly that, because the 
disparity which produces them increases as we pass 
from generation to generation from term to term 
of our progressions the "jumps" in question occur 
not only with increasing violence but with increasing 
frequency. This highly significant fact may be 
graphically illustrated in the following figure: 

Geometric evolution of the natural and technological sciences. 
Peaceful progress. 

248 16 32 

Arithmetical evolution of the so-called social "sciences," 
accelerated by violent "jumps." Non-peaceful social progress. 

A' A 

\ i 

B C D E F 

l>i i . i - i i . i 


i 1 
2 4 

6\/ 8\ / io\ 


U Peaceful \ / Peaceful 

V V 


Jump Jump 



Revo- Revo- 



lution lution 


or War. or War. 

or War. 

0'2, 20, dby \>c, cd, represent the geometrical law 
of progression in the natural and technological 
sciences (peaceful evolution). 

A'?., 2.A, AB, CD, EF, represent the lagging 
arithmetical law of progression in the so-called social 
sciences (peaceful evolution). 

Both of these during the same periods of time. 


BC, DE, FG, represent revolutions or wars, with 
the aftermath of revolution of ideas the "jump" 
violent readjustment of ideas to facts forced by 

ab, be, cd, and AB, CD, EF, take the same amount 
of time, but the second progression being much 
slower than the first one, the "jumps" or revolutions 
occur at shorter intervals as time goes on and thus 
more frequently force us to coordinate our ideas to 
facts. Periods of peace or seeming peace alternate 
more and more frequently with periods of violence; 
the mentioned disparity of progress in peaceful times 
is the hatching seed of future violence.* 

*To digress a bit, it may be interesting to add, that popula- 
tion and the need of people increase in a geometrical progres- 
sion; and also that the growth of individuals is limited by the 
fact, that they have to absorb their food through surfaces 
which as growth goes on increase only as squares, while the 
bodies to be fed, being volumes, increase in size as cubes increase, 
as the cubes of the same base grow faster than the squares, 

2 2 = 4, 2 3 =8, 3 2 =9, 3 8 = 27> and so on, 

it is obvious, that in the infancy of an organism only a part of 
the food goes to maintain life, the larger part goes for growth; 
when the organism becomes larger, the absorbing surfaces, 
growing proportionally to the square, the food is spent to build 
the mass of the volume of the body and is spent proportionally 
to the cube. Suppose our organism has grown to a size twice 
as large, its absorbing capacity has become four times larger, 
its volume eight times larger. In case of 3 times, the difference 
will be 9 and 27. It is obvious that at some point, all the 
absorbed food will be used to maintain life and none will be 
left for growth, and this last process will stop. This is another 
example which explains how the theory of dimensions is vitally 
important in life and shows why it is absolutely essential to 
take account of dimensions in the study of life problems. 


As a matter of fact these few mathematical con- 
siderations can hardly be called mathematics or 
mathematical philosophy; nevertheless, without 
bringing attention to these very simple mathematical 
ideas we should not be able to proceed any further 
than in the past Our life problems have always been 
"solved" by verbalists and rhetorical metaphysicians 
who cleverly played with vague words and who 
always ignored the supremely important matter of 
dimensions because they were ignorant of it. There 
was no possible way to arrive at an agreement on 
the significance of words, or even the understanding 
of them. Let us take, for instance, such words as 
"good" or "bad" or "truth" ; volumes upon volumes 
have been written about them; no one has reached 
any result universally acceptable ; the effect has been 
to multiply warring schools of philosophy secta- 
rians and partisans. In the meantime something 
corresponding to each of the terms "good," "bad," 
"truth" exists as matter of fact; but what that some- 
thing is still awaits scientific determination. If only 
these three words could be scientifically defined, phil- 
osophy, law, ethics and psychology would cease to 
be "private theories" or verbalism and they would 
advance to the rank and dignity of sciences. 

Here I may quote a characteristic of life as ex- 
pressed by one of the "heroes" of my esteemed 
friend Harvey O'Higgins, in his book, From the 


Life, Imaginary Portraits of Some Distinguished 
Americans (Harper, N. Y.). 

"Warren never philosophized; he handled facts as an 
artisan handles his tools; but if he had philosophized, his 
theory of life would probably have been something like this: 
'There is no justice, there is no morality, in nature or in 
natural laws; justice and morality are laws only of human 
society. But society, natural life, and all civilization are 
subject in their larger aspects to natural laws which con- 
tradict morality and outrage justice and the statesman has 
to move with those laws and direct his people in accordance 
with them, despite the lesser by-laws of morality and jus- 
tice.' " 

If such are the creeds of "distinguished people" 
anywhere, what better can we expect than that which 
we see in the history of humanity? 

But the fact that the old philosophy, law, ethics, 
psychology, politics and sociology could not solve the 
practical problems of humanity, is not any reason 
whatsoever why we should despair. The problems 
can be solved. 

To follow the reasoning of this book, it is not 
necessary to be a highly trained specialist; the only 
qualifications required are candor, an open mind, 
freedom from blinding prejudice, thoughtfulness, a 
real desire for truth, and enough common sense to 
understand that to talk of adding three quarts of 
milk to three-quarters of a mile is to talk nonsense. 



/ T A HE conclusion of the World War is the closing 
of the period of the childhood of humanity. 
This childhood, as any childhood, can be character- 
ized as devoid of any real understanding of values, 
as is that of a child who uses a priceless chronometer 
to crack nuts. 

This childhood has been unduly long, but happily 
we are near to the end of it, for humanity, shaken 
by this war, is coming to its senses and must soon 
enter its manhood, a period of great achievements 
and rewards in the new and real sense of values 
dawning upon us. 

The sacred dead will not have died for naught; 
the "red wine of youth," the wanton waste of life, 
has shown us the price of life, and we will have to 
keep our oath to make the future woithy of their 
sweat and blood. 

Early ideas are not necessarily true ideas. 

There are different kinds of interpretations of 
history and different schools of philosophy. All of 
them have contributed something to human progress, 
but none of them has been able to give the world a 



basic philosophy embracing the whole progress of 
science and establishing the life of man upon the 
abiding foundation of Fact. 

Our life is bound to develop according to evident 
or else concealed laws of nature. The evident laws 
of nature were the inspiration of genuine science in 
its cradle; and their interpretations or misinterpre- 
tations have from the earliest times formed systems 
of law, of ethics, and of philosophy. 

Human intellect, be it that of an individual or 
that of the race, forms conclusions which have to be 
often revised before they correspond approximately 
to facts. What we call progress consists in coordi- 
nating ideas with realities. The World War has 
taught something to everybody. It was indeed a 
great reality; it accustomed us to think in terms of 
reality and not in those of phantom speculation. 
Some unmistakable truths were revealed. Facts and 
force were the things that counted. Power had to 
be produced to destroy hostile power; it was found 
that the old political and economic systems were not 
adequate to the task put upon them. The world had 
to create new economic conditions; it was obliged 
to supplement the old systems with special boards 
for food, coal, railroads, shipping, labor, etc. The 
World War emergency compelled the nations to or- 
ganize for producing greater power in order to con- 
quer power already great. 


If there is anything which this war has proved, it 
is the fact that the most important asset a nation or 
an individual can have, is the ability "to do things." 

"In Flanders Fields the poppies blow . . . ," that 
is too true; they blow and they are strong and red. 
But the purpose of this writing is not the celebra- 
tion of poetry, but the elucidation and right use of 

Normally, thousands of rabbits and guinea pigs 
are used and killed, in scientific laboratories, for 
experiments which yield great and tangible benefits 
to humanity. This war butchered millions of people 
and ruined the health and lives of tens of millions. 
Is this climax of the pre-war civilization to be passed 
unnoticed, except for the poetry and the manuring 
of the battle fields, that the "poppies blow" stronger 
and better fed? Or is the death of ten men on the 
battle field to be of as much worth in knowledge 
gained as is the life of one rabbit killed for experi- 
ment? Is the great sacrifice worth analysing? 
There can be only one answer yes. But, if truth 
be desired, the analysis must be scientific. 

In science, "opinions" are tolerated when and 
only when facts are lacking. In this case, We have 
all the facts necessary. We have only to collect them 
and analyse them, rejecting mere "opinions" as cheap 
and unworthy. Such as understand this lesson will 
know how to act for the benefit of all. 


At present the future of mankind is dark. "Stop, 
look, and listen" the prudent caution at railroad 
crossings must be amended to read "stop, look, 
listen, and THINK"; not for the saving of a few lives 
in railroad accidents, but for the preservation of the 
life of humanity. Living organisms, of the lower 
and simpler types, in which the differentiation and 
the integration of the vital organs have not been 
carried far, can move about for a considerable time 
after being deprived of the appliances by which the 
life force is accumulated and transferred, but higher 
organisms are instantly killed by the removal of such 
appliances, or even by the injury of minor parts of 
them; even more easily destroyed are the more ad- 
vanced and complicated social organizations. 

The first question is: what are to be the scientific 
methods that will eliminate diverse opinions and 
creeds from an analysis of facts and ensure correct 
deductions based upon them? A short survey of 
facts concerning civilization will help to point the 

Humanity, in its cradle, did not have science; it 
had only the faculties of observation and speculation. 
In the early days there was much speculative think- 
ing, but it was without any sufficient basis of facts. 
Theology and philosophy flourished; their specula- 
tions were often very clever, but all their primitive 
notions about facts such as the structure of the 


heavens, the form of the earth, mechanical principles, 
meteorological or physiological phenomena were 
almost all of them wrong. 

What is history? What is its significance for 
humanity? Dr. J. H. Robinson gives us a precise 
answer: "Man's abject dependence on the past gives 
rise to the continuity of history. Our convictions, 
opinions, prejudices, intellectual tastes; our knowl- 
edge, our methods of learning and of applying for 
information we owe, with slight exceptions, to the 
past often to the remote past. History is an ex- 
pansion of memory, and like memory it alone can 
explain the present and in this lies its most unmis- 
takable value." * 

The savage regards every striking phenomenon or 
group of phenomena as caused by some personal 
agent, and from remotest antiquity the mode of think- 
ing has changed only as fast as the relations among 
phenomena have been established. f 

* An Outline of the History of the Western European Mind, by 
James Harvey Robinson. The New School for Social Research, 
New York, 1919. This little volume gives condensed state- 
ments, as in a nutshell, of the historical developments of the 
human mind and contains a long list of the most substantial 
modern books on historical questions. All the further historical 
quotations will be taken from this exceptionally valuable little 
book, and for convenience they will simply be marked by his 
initials J. H. R. 

f (J. H. R.) "Late appearance of a definite theory of progress. 
Excessive conservatism of primitive peoples. The Greeks 
speculated on the origin of things, but they did not have a con- 
ception of the possibility of indefinite progress . . . Progress 


Human nature was always asking "why"? and not 
being able to answer why, they found their answer 

of man from the earliest time till the opening of the 1 7th century 
almost altogether unconscious. . . . Fundamental weakness of 
Hellenic learning. It was an imposing collection of speculation, 
opinions, and guesses, which, however brilliant and ingenious 
they might be, were based on a very slight body of exact knowl- 
edge, and failed to recognize the fundamental necessity of 
painful scientific research, aided by apparatus. There was no 
steady accumulation of knowledge to offset the growing emo- 
tional distrust of reason. . . . Unfulfilled promise of Hellenistic 
science. Influence of slavery in checking the development of 
science. . . . The deficiencies of Medieval culture. All the 
weaknesses of the Hellenic reasoning, combined with those of 
the Christian Fathers, underlay what appeared to be a most 
logically elaborated and definitive system of thought. Defects 
of the university education. . . . Little history of Natural 
science, in our sense of the word, taught in the universities. . . . 
Copernicus, 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium.' Libri 
VI, 1543. . . . Copernicus' own introduction acknowledges 
his debt to ancient philosophers. Still believed in fixed Starry 
Sphere. His discovery had little immediate effect on prevail- 
ing notions. Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) made it his chief 
business to think out and set forth in Latin and Italian the 
implications of the discovery of Copernicus. . . . Bruno burned 
by the Inquisition at Rome. . . . Keppler (1571-1630) and 
his discovery of the elliptical orbits of the planets. Galileo 
(1564-1642). His telescope speedily improved so as to magnify 
32 diameters. His attitude toward the Copernican theory, 
which was condemned by Roman Inquisition 1616. . . . 
Galileo's chief discoveries were in physics and mechanics. 
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) proved that the laws of falling 
bodies apply to the heavens. This made a deep impression 
and finally the newer conceptions of the universe began to be 
popularized. . . . Lord Bacon (1561-1626), the 'Buccinator* 
of experimental and applied modern science. . . . His lively 
appreciation of the existing obstacles to scientific advance; the 
idols of the tribe, cave, market-place, and theatre. . . . Neces- 
sity of escaping from the scholastic methods of 'tumbling up 
and down in our reasons and conceits,' and studying the world 
about us. Undreamed of achievements possible if only the 
right method of research be followed . . . the distrust of 


through another factor "who." The unknown was 
called, Gods or God. But with the progress of 
science the "why" became more and more evident, 
and the question came to be "how." From the early 
days of humanity, dogmatic theology, law, ethics, 
and science in its infancy, were the monopolies of one 
class and the source of their power.* 

ancient authority. . . . Descartes (1596-1650), ... he pro- 
posed to reach the truth through analysis and clear ideas, on 
the assumption that God will not deceive. . . . His fundamental 
interest in mathematics. . . . His claim to originality and his 
rejection of all authority. . . . Obstacles to scientific advance; 
the universities still dominated by Aristotle; the theological 
faculties; the censorship of the press exercised by both church 
and state; . . ." 

* (J. H. R.) "Phases of religious complex. 'Religious/ a 
vague and comprehensive term applied to: (i) certain classes 
of emotions (awe, dependence, self-distrust, aspirations, etc.); 
(2) Conduct, which may take the form of distinctive religious 
acts (ceremonies, sacrifices, prayers, 'good works') or the 
observance of what in primitive conditions are recognized as 
'taboos'; (3) Priestly, or ecclesiastical organizations; (4) 
Beliefs about supernatural beings and man's relations to them: 
the latter may take the form of revelation and be reduced to 
creeds and become the subject of elaborate theological specula- 

"Association of religion with the supernatural; religion has 
always had for its primary object the attainment of a satisfac- 
tory adjustment to, or a successful control over, the super- 
natural. . . . The cultural mind viewed as the product of a 
long and hazardous process of accumulation. . . . Spontaneous 
generation of superstitions. Prevalence of symbolism, mana, 
animism, magic, fetishism, totemism; the taboo (cf. our modern 
idea of 'principle'), the sacred, clean and unclean; 'dream 
logic' spontaneous rationalizing or 'jumping at conclusions'; 
. . . The 1 6th book of the Theodosian Code contains edicts 
relating to the Church issued by the Roman Emperors during 
the 4th and 5th centuries. They make it a crime to disagree 
with the Church; they provide harsh penalties for heretical 


The first to break this power were the exact 
sciences. They progressed too rapidly to be bound 
and limited by obscure old writings and prejudices; 
life and realities were their domain. Science brushed 
aside all sophistry and became a reality. Ethics is 
too fundamentally important a factor in civilization 
to depend upon a theological or a legal excuse; 

teaching and writing, and grant privileges to the orthodox 
clergy (exemptions from regular taxes and benefit of the clergy). 
. . . Christianity becomes a monopoly defended by the state. 
. . . Psychological power and attraction in the elaborate 
symbolism and ritual of the church. . . . Allegory put an end 
to all literary criticism. . . . Flourishing of the miraculous; 
any unusual or startling occurrence attributed to the interven- 
tion of either God or the Devil. . . . Older conceptions of 
disease as caused by the Devil. . . . Our legal expression 
'act of God' confined to unforseeable natural disasters. How 
with a growing appreciation for natural law and a chastened 
taste in wonders, miracles have tended to become a source of 
intellectual distress and bewilderment. . . . Protestants shared 
with Roman Catholics the horror of 'rationalists' and 'free- 
thinkers.' The leaders of both parties agreed in hampering 
and denouncing scientific discoveries. . . . Witchcraft in its 
modern form emerges clearly in the I5th century. . . . Great 
prevalence of witchcraft during the i6th and iyth centuries in 
Protestant and Catholic countries, alike. . . . Trial of those 
suspected of sorcery. Tortures to force confession. The 
witches' mark. Penalties, burning alive, strangling, hanging. 
Tens of thousands of innocent persons perished. . . . Those 
who tried to discredit witchcraft denounced as 'Sadducees* 
and atheists. . . . The psychology of intolerance. Fear, vested 
interests, the comfortable nature of the traditional and the 
habitual. The painful appropriation of new ideas. . . . The 
intolerance of the Catholic Church: a natural result of its state- 
like organization and claims. ... Its doctrine of exclusive 
salvation and its conception of heresy both sanctioned by the 
state. Doubt and error regarded as sinful. . . . Beginnings 
of censorship of the press after the invention of printing, licens- 
ing of ecclesiastical and civil authorities. . . . Protestants of 
i6th century accept the theory of intolerance." 


ethics must conform to the natural laws of human 

Laws, legal ideas, date from the beginning of 
civilization. Legal speculation was wonderfully de- 
veloped in parallel lines with theology and phil- 
osophy before the natural and exact sciences came 
into existence. Law was always made by the few 
and in general for the purpose of preserving the 
"existing order," or for the reestablishment of the 
old order and the punishment of the offenders 
against it. 

Dogmatic theology is, by its very nature, un- 
changeable. The same can be said in regard to the 
spirit of the law. Law was and is to protect the 
past and present status of society and, by its very 
essence, must be very conservative, if not reactionary. 
Theology and law are both of them static by their 

*(J. H. R.) "The Sociopsychological foundations of conserv- 
atism: Primitive natural reverence for the familiar and habitual 
greatly reenforced by religion and law. Natural conservatism 
of all professions. Those who suffer most from existing institu- 
tions commonly, helplessly accept the situation as inevitable. 
Position of the conservative; he urges the impossibility of alter- 
ing 'human nature' and warns against the disasters of revolu- 
tion. Conservatism in the light of history: History would seem 
to discredit conservatism completely as a working principle in 
view of the past achievements of mankind in the recent past 
and the possibilities which opened before us. ... Futility of 
the appeal of the conservative to human nature as an obstacle 
to progress. . . . Culture can not be transmitted hereditarily 
but can be accumulated through education and modified indefi- 


Philosophy, law and ethics, to be effective in a 
dynamic world must be dynamic; they must be made 
vital enough to keep pace with the progress of life 
and science. In recent civilization ethics, because 
controlled by theology and law, which are static, 
could not duly influence the dynamic, revolutionary 
progress of technic and the steadily changing condi- 
tions of life ; and so we witness a tremendous down- 
fall of morals in politics and business. Life pro- 
gresses faster than our ideas, and so medieval ideas, 
methods and judgments are constantly applied to 
the conditions and problems of modern life. This 
discrepancy between facts and ideas is greatly respon- 
sible for the dividing of modern society into differ- 
ent warring classes, which do not understand each 
other. Medieval legalism and medieval morals 
the basis of the old social structure being by their 
nature conservative, reactionary, opposed to change, 
and thus becoming more and more unable to support 
the mighty social burden of the modern world, must 
be adjudged responsible in a large measure for the 
circumstances which made the World War inevitable. 

Under the flash of explosives some of the work- 
ings of those antiquated ideas were exposed or 
crushed. The World War has profoundly changed 
economic conditions and made it necessary to erect 
new standards of values. We are forced to realize 
that evolution by transformation is a cosmic process 


and that reaction, though it may retard it, can not 
entirely stop it.* 

The idea that organic species are results of special 
creation has no scientific standard whatever. There 
is not one fact tending to prove special or separate 
creation; the evidence, which is overwhelming, is all 
of it on the other side. The hypothesis of special 
creation is a mere fossil of the past. Evolution is 
the only theory which is in harmony with facts and 
with all branches of science; life is dynamic, not 

Philosophy, as defined by Fichte, is the "science 
of sciences." Its aim was to solve the problems of 
the world. In the past, when all exact sciences were 
in their infancy, philosophy had to be purely specu- 
lative, with little or no regard to realities. But if 

* (J. H. R.) "Formulation and establishment of the evolu- 
tionary hypothesis. Discovery of the great age of the earth; 
. . . gradual development of the evolutionary theory. . . . 
Darwin's 'Origin of the Species/ 1859. Herbert Spencer 
(1820-1903). . . . Haeckel (1834-1919) and others clarify, 
defend and popularize the new doctrine. Subsequent develop- 
ment of the evolutionary doctrine by Mendel, Weisman, DeVries 
and others. Weakening of the special creation theory by other 
evidence such as archeology and biblical criticism. The signifi- 
cance of the doctrine for intellectual history. Character of the 
opposition to the evolutionary theory. Popular confusion of 
'Darwinism' with 'evolution/ Revolutionary effects of the 
new point of view. Does away with conception of fixed species 
(Platonic ideas) that had previously dominated speculation. 
The genetic method adopted in all the organic sciences, including 
the newer social sciences. Problem of adjusting history to the 
discoveries of the past 50 years. Bearing of evolution on the 
theory of progress. Organic evolution and social evolution." 


we regard philosophy as a Mother science, divided 
into many branches, we find that those branches have 
grown so large and various, that the Mother science 
looks like a hen with her little ducklings paddling 
in a pond, far beyond her reach; she is unable to 
follow her growing hatchlings. In the meantime, 
the progress of life and science goes on, irrespective 
of the cackling of metaphysics. Philosophy does not 
fulfill her initial aim to bring the results of experi- 
mental and exact sciences together and to solve world 
problems. Through endless, scientific specialization 
scientific branches multiply, and for want of coordi- 
nation the great world-problems suffer. This failure 
of philosophy to fulfill her boasted mission of scien- 
tific coordination is responsible for the chaos in the 
world of general thought. The world has no col- 
lective or organized higher ideals and aims, nor 
even fixed general purposes. Life is an accidental 
game of private or collective ambitions and greeds.* 

*(J. H. R.) "The Deists and philosophers destroy the older 
theological anthropology and reassert the dignity of man; the 
growth of criticism and liberalism has made the analysis of 
social institutions somewhat less dangerous; the general growth 
of knowledge has reacted in a stimulating way upon the sciences 
of society; the great increase in the number, complexity and 
intensity of social problems has proved a strong incentive to 
social science; The Darwinian hypothesis has rendered pre- 
posterous any conception of a wholly static social system. How- 
ever, the modern social sciences in our capitalistic order meet 
much the same resistance from the 'vested interests' that 
theological radicalism encountered in the Middle Ages, and 
social science has in no way approached the objectivity and 


Systematic study of chemical and physical phe- 
nomena has been carried on for many generations 
and these two sciences now include : ( i ) knowledge 
of an enormous number of facts; (2) a large body 
of natural laws; (3) many fertile working hypoth- 
eses respecting the causes and regularities of natural 
phenomena; and finally (4) many helpful theories 
held subject to correction by further testing of the 
hypotheses giving rise to them. When a subject is 
spoken of as a science, it is understood to include 
all of the above mentioned parts. Facts alone do 
not constitute a science any more than a pile of 
stones constitutes a house, not even do facts and laws 
alone ; there must be facts, hypotheses, theories and 
laws before the subject is entitled to the rank of a 

The primal function of a science is to enable us 
to anticipate the future in the field to which it relates. 

progressiveness of present day natural science. . . . Grave 
effects of vested rights in hampering experiments and readjust- 
ments. . . . Obstacles to readjustment presented by consecrated 
traditions. . . . Influence of modern commercialism in the 
inordinate development of organization and regimentation in 
our present educational system. Psychological disadvantages 
of our conventional examination system. As yet our education 
has not been brought into close relation with prevailing condi- 
tions of our ever increasing knowledge. . . . Excellent aims 
and small achievements of sociology in practical results. 
(Because of absolute lack of any scientific base. Author.) Gen- 
eral nature of the problem of social reform: psychological 
problems involved in social reform movements: violent resist- 
ance of the group to that criticism of the existing institutions, 
which must precede any effective social reform. ..." 


Judged by this standard, neither philosophy nor its 
kindred the so-called social sciences have in the 
past been very effective. There was, for example, 
no official warning of the coming of the World War 
the greatest of catastrophies. The future was not 
anticipated because political philosophers did not 
possess the necessary basis of knowledge. To be 
just we must admit that philosophy has been but little 
aided financially because it is commonly regarded as 
unnecessary. The technical branches of science have 
been strongly backed and generally supported by 
those to whom they have brought direct profit; and 
so they have had better opportunities for develop- 

Ethics in the stifling grip of myth and legalism 
is not convincing enough to exercise controlling influ- 
ence. Such is the situation in which we find our- 
selves. Being still in our childhood and thinking like 
savages, we looked upon the World War as a per- 
sonal creation of a "war-lord," because those inter- 
ested in it told us so. We neglected to use our com- 
mon sense and look deeper into its origins; to per- 
form for ourselves the duty which political phi- 
losophy did not perform for us the duty of think- 
ing in terms of facts and not in terms of meta- 
physical speculations. Knowledge of facts would 
have told us that the war lords were only the repre- 
sentatives of the ruling classes. A system of social 


and economic order built exclusively on selfishness, 
greed, "survival of the fittest," and ruthless compe- 
tition, must cease to exist, or exist by means of war. 
The representatives of this system determined to con- 
tinue to exist, and so war was the consequence. The 
ruling classes carried the whole system under which 
they lived to its logical conclusion and natural issue, 
which is "grab what you can." This motto is not 
peculiar to any one country; it is the motto of our 
whole civilization and is the inevitable outcome of 
our stupid philosophy regarding the characteristic 
nature of man and the proper potentialities of human 
life. Where are we to find the true doctrines? 
Where the true philosophy? If we go back over the 
history of civilization, we find that in all "sciences," 
except the exact ones, private opinions and theories 
have shaped our beliefs, colored our mental proc- 
esses and controlled our destinies; we see, for ex- 
ample, pessimism opposed to optimism, materialism 
to spiritualism, realism to idealism, capitalism to 
socialism, and so on endlessly. Each of the dispu- 
tatious systems has a large number of followers and 
each faction looks upon the others as deprived of 
truth, common sense and knowledge. All of them 
play with the words "natural law" which they igno- 
rantly presume to have as the basis and content of 
their own particular doctrine. 

It is the same in the realm of religions ; there are 


approximately 291 million Confucianists, or Taoists/ 
261 million Roman Catholics, 211 million Moham- 
medans, 209 million Hindus, 177 million Protes- 
tants, 157 million Animists, 137 million Buddhists, 
115 million Orthodox Christians to speak only of 
the most important religions. Each group, and they 
are rather large groups, believes its theory or its 
faith to be infallible and all the others to be false. 
Bacon seems a bit remote, but the idols and 
medieval fetishes which he so masterfully describes 
are equally venerated to-day. 

(Novum Organum, by Francis Bacon.) 

34. "Four species of idols beset the human mind, to which 
(for distinction's sake) we have assigned names, calling the 
first Idols of the Tribe, the second Idols of the Den, the 
third Idols of the Market, the fourth Idols of the Theatre. 

40. "The information of notions and axioms on the foun- 
dation of true induction is the only fitting remedy by which 
we can ward off and expel these idols. It is, however, of 
great service to point them out; for the doctrine of idols 
bears the same relation to the interpretation of nature as 
that of the confutation of sophisms does to common logic. 

41. "The idols of the tribe are inherent in human nature 
and the very tribe or race of man; for man's sense is falsely 
Asserted to be the standard of things; on the contrary, all 
the perceptions both of the senses and the mind bear reference 
to man and not to the Universe, and the human mind re- 
sembles these uneven mirrors which impart their own prop- 
erties to different objects, from which rays are emitted and 
distort and disfigure them. 

42. "The idols of the den are those of each individual; 
for everybody (in addition to the errors common to the race 


of man) has his own individual den or cavern, which inter- 
cepts and corrupts the light of nature, either from his own 
peculiar and singular disposition, or from his education and 
intercourse with others, or from his reading, and the 
authority acquired by those whom he reverences and admires, 
or from the different impressions produced on the mind, as 
it happens to be preoccupied and predisposed, or equable and 
tranquil, and the like; so that the spirit of man (according 
to its several dispositions), is variable, confused, and, as it 
were, actuated by chance; and Heraclitus said well that men 
search for knowledge in lesser worlds, and not in the greater 
or common world. 

43. "There are also idols formed by the reciprocal inter- 
course and society of man with man, which we call idols 
of the market, from the commerce and association of men 
with each other; for men converse by means of language, 
but words are formed at the will of the generality, and there 
arises from a bad and unapt formation of words a wonderful 
obstruction to the mind. Nor can the definitions and ex- 
planations with which learned men are wont to guard and 
protect themselves in some instances afford a complete 
remedy words still manifestly force the understanding, 
throw everything into confusion, and lead mankind into vain 
and innumerable controversies and fallacies. 

44. "Lastly, there are idols which have crept into men's 
minds from the various dogmas of peculiar systems of phi- 
losophy, and also from the perverted rules of demonstration, 
and these we denominate idols of the theatre: for we regard 
all the systems of philosophy hitherto received or imagined, 
as so many plays brought out and performed, creating 
fictitious and theatrical worlds. Nor do we speak only of the 
present systems, or of the philosophy and sects of the ancients, 
since numerous other plays of a similar nature can be still 
composed and made to agree with each other, the causes 
of the most opposite errors being generally the same. Nor, 


again, do we allude merely to general systems, but also to 
many elements and axioms of sciences which have become 
inveterate by tradition, implicit credence, and neglect." * 

Metaphysical speculation and its swarming prog- 
eny of blind and selfish political philosophies, private 
opinions, private "truths," and private doctrines, 
sectarian opinions, sectarian "truths" and sectarian 
doctrines, querulous, confused and blind such is 
characteristic of the childhood of humanity. The 
period of humanity's manhood will, I doubt not, be 
a scientific period a period that will witness the 
gradual extension of scientific method to all the in- 

* (J. H. R.) " During the past two centuries the application 
of the scientific discoveries to daily life has revolutionized 
our methods of supplying our economic needs, our social and 
intellectual life, and the whole range of the relations of mankind. 
The impulse of invention, iron, coal, and steam essential to the 
development of machinery on a large scale; machinery has in 
turn begotten the modern factory with its vast organized labor, 
the modern city and finally, our well nigh perfect means of 
rapid human inter-communication. The tremendous increase 
in the production of wealth and the growing interdependence of 
nations has opened up a vast range of speculation in regard to 
the betterment of mankind to the abolition or reduction of pov- 
erty, ignorance, disease, and war. . . . Man advances from a 
tool-using to a machine-controlling animal. The rise of the 
factory system; the concentration and localization of industry; 
increased division of labor and specialization of industrial proc- 
esses. The great increase in the volume of capital and in the 
extent of investments; the separation of capital and labor and 
the growth of impersonal economic relationship. Problems of 
capital and labor; unemployment and the labor of women and 
children; labor organizations. Increased productivity and the 
expansion of commerce. Industrial processes become dynamic 
and everchanging a complete reversal of the old stability, repeti- 
tion and isolation." 


terests of mankind a period in which man will dis- 
cover the essential nature of man and establish, at 
length, the science and art of directing human 
energies and human capacities to the advancement 
of human weal in accordance with the laws of 
human nature. 



problems to be dealt with in this chapter 
are not easy, but they are exceedingly impor- 
tant. To classify phenomena correctly, they must 
be correctly analysed and clearly defined. For the 
sake of clearness I will use the simplest illustrations 
and, avoiding as much as possible the difficulties of 
technical terms, will use language easily to be under- 
stood by every one. In some cases the words will 
indeed have a technical meaning and it will be neces- 
sary to exercise great care against the danger of 
giving false impressions ; for clear ideas are essential 
to sound thinking. As a matter of fact our common 
daily speech is ill adapted for the precise expression 
of thought; even so-called "scientific" language is 
often too vague for the purpose and requires further 
refining. Some may say that it is useless and un- 
necessary to lay so much stress on correct thinking 
and precise expression; that it has no practical value; 
for they say that "business" language is good enough 
to "talk business," or to put "something over" the 
other fellow. But a little explanation will show that 
precision is often of the greatest importance. 

4 6 


Humanity is a peculiar class of life which, in some 
degree, determines its own destinies; therefore in 
practical life words and ideas become facts facts, 
moreover, which bring about important practical 
consequences. For instance, many millions of human 
beings have defined a stroke of lightning as being 
the "punishment of God" of evil men; other millions 
have defined it as a "natural, casual, periodical phe- 
nomenon"; yet other millions have defined it as an 
"electric spark." What has been the result of 
these "non-important" definitions in practical life? 
In the case of the first definition, when lightning 
struck a house, the population naturally made no 
attempt to save the house or anything in it, because 
to do so would be against the "definition" which pro- 
claims the phenomenon to be a "punishment for 
evil," any attempt to prevent or check the destruction 
would be an impious act; the sinner would be guilty 
of "resisting the supreme law" and would deserve to 
be punished by death. 

Now in the second instance, a stricken building is 
treated just as any tree overturned by storm; the 
people save what they can and try to extinguish the 
fire. In both instances, the behavior of the popu- 
lace is the same in one respect; if caught in the open 
by a storm they take refuge under a tree a means 
of safety involving maximum danger but the people 
do not know it. 


Now in the third instance, in which the popula- 
tion have a scientifically correct definition of light- 
ning, they provide their houses with lightning rods; 
and if they are caught by a storm in the open they 
neither run nor hide under a tree; but when the 
storm is directly over their heads, they put them- 
selves in a position of minimum exposure by lying flat 
on the ground until the storm has passed. 

Such examples could be given without end, but 
there is another example of sufficient vital impor- 
tance to be given here, as it has to do with our con- 
ception of the social and economic system, and the 
state. If our institutions are considered "God- 
given" sacred and therefore static every re- 
former or advocate of change should be treated as 
a criminal or "a danger to the existing order" and 
hanged or at least put in jail for life. But now, if 
our institutions are "man made," imperfect and often 
foolish, and subject to change all the time steadily 
and dynamically in obedience to some known or un- 
known law; then of course all reactionaries would 
be a "danger to the natural order" and they should 
be treated the same way. The importance of defi- 
nitions can be seen in all other fields of practical life; 
definitions create conditions. To know the world in 
which we live, we have to analyse facts by help of 
such facts as we know in daily practice and such facts 
as are established in scientific laboratories where men 


do not jump to conclusions. In some places it will 
be necessary to make statements that will have to 
await full justification at a later stage of the dis- 
cussion. This will be necessary to indicate the trend 
of the analysis. 

The aim of the analysis is to give us just concep- 
tions, correct definitions, and true propositions. The 
process is slow, progressive, and endless. The prob- 
lems are infinitely many, and it is necessary to select. 
Fortunately the solution of a few leads automatically 
to the solution of many others. Some of the greatest 
and most far-reaching scientific discoveries have been 
nothing else than a few correct definitions, a few 
just concepts and a few true propositions. Such, for 
example, was the work of Euclid, Newton and 
Leibnitz a few correct definitions, a few just con- 
cepts, a few true propositions; but these have been 
extended and multiplied, sometimes by men of crea- 
tive genius, and often almost automatically by men 
of merely good sense and fair talent. 

The matter of definition, I have said, is very im- 
portant. I am not now speaking of nominal defi- 
nitions, which for convenience merely give names to 
known objects. I am speaking of such definitions 
of phenomena as result from correct analysis of the 
phenomena. Nominal definitions are mere conven- 
iences and are neither true nor false; but analytic 
definitions are definitive propositions and are true 


or else false. Let us dwell upon the matter a litde 

In the illustration of the definitions of lightning, 
there were three; the first was the most mistaken 
and its application brought the most harm; the sec- 
ond was less incorrect and the practical results less 
bad; the third under the present conditions of our 
knowledge, was the "true one" and it brought the 
maximum benefit. This lightning illustration sug- 
gests the important idea of relative truth and rela- 
tive falsehood the idea, that is, of degrees of 
truth and degrees of falsehood. A definition may 
be neither absolutely true nor absolutely false; but 
of two definitions of the same thing, one of them 
may be truer or falser than the other. 

If, for illustration's sake, we call the first " truth " 
A y (alpha i), the second one A% (alpha 2), the third 
one As (alpha 3), we may suppose that a genius 
appears who has the faculty to surpass all the other 
relative truths AI, A^ As, . . . A n and gives us an 
absolute or final truth, VALID IN INFINITY (A^) say a 
final definition, that lightning is so ... and so . . ., 
a kind of energy which flows, let us say, through a 
glass tube filled with charcoal. Then of course 
this definition would immediately make obvious 
what use could be made of it. We could erect 
glass towers filled with charcoal and so secure an 
unlimited flow of available free energy and our 


whole life would be affected in an untold degree. 
This example explains the importance of correct 

But to take another example: there is such a 
thing as a phenomenon called the " color " red. 
Imagine how it might be defined. A reactionary 
would call it a "Bolshevik" (Ai)', a Bolshevik 
would say " My color " (A%) ; a color-blind person 
would say "such a thing does not exist "(^3); 
a Daltonist would say " that is green " (A) ; a 
metaphysician would say " that is the soul of 
whiskey" (^5); an historian would say "that is 
the color of the ink with which human history has 
been written" (A&); an uneducated person would 
say " that is the color of blood " (A-?) ; the modern 
scientist would say " it is the light of such and 
such wave length "(Ai). If this last definition be 
" valid in infinity " or not we do not know, but it is, 
nevertheless, a " scientific truth " in the present 
condition of our knowledge. 

This final but unknown "truth valid in infinity" 
is somehow perceived or felt by us as an ideal, for 
in countless years of observation we have formed 
a series of less and less false, more and more nearly 
true "ideas" about the phenomenon. "The "ideas" 
are reflexes of the phenomenon, reflected in our 
midst as in a mirror; the reflexes may be distorted, 
as in a convex or concave mirror, but they suggest 


an ideal reflex valid in infinity. It is of the utmost 
importance to realize that the words which are used 
to express the ideas and the ideals are THE MATE- 
RIALIZATION of the ideas and ideal; it is only by 
words that we are enabled to give to other human 
beings an exact or nearly exact impression which 
we have had of the phenomenon. 

It may be helpful to illustrate this process by an 
example. Let us suppose that a man makes an 
experiment of doing his own portrait from a mirror, 
which may be plane, concave or convex. If he looks 
into a plane mirror, he will see his true likeness; 
even so, if he be a poor designer, he will draw the 
likeness badly. Let us suppose that the man has 
beautiful features but because the drawing is very 
poor, it will not convey the impression that the 
features of the original were beautiful. If this poor 
designer were to look into and work from a concave 
or convex mirror, the drawing of his likeness would 
have practically no resemblance to his original 

For correct analysis and true definitions of the 
cardinal classes of life in our world it is necessary 
to have some just ideas about dimensions or dimen- 
sionality. The Britannica gives us some help in 
this connection. I will explain briefly by an example. 
Measurable entities of different kinds can not be 
compared directly. Each one must be measured in 


terms of a unit of its own kind. A line can have 
only length and therefore is of one dimension: a sur- 
face has length and width and is therefore said to 
have two dimensions ; a volume has length, width and 
thickness and is, therefore, said to have three dimen- 
sions. If we take, for example, a volume say a 
cube we see that the cube has surfaces and lines and 
points, but a volume is not a surface nor a line nor 
a point. Just these dimensional differences have an 
enormous unrealized importance in practical life, as 
in the case of taking a line of five units of length 
and building upon it a square, the measure of this 
square (surface) will not be 5, it will be 25; and 
the 25 will not be 25 linear units but 25 square or 
surface units. If upon this square we build a cube, 
this cube will have neither 5 nor 25 for its measure; 
it will have 125, and this number will not be so many 
units of length nor of surface but so many solid or 
cubic units. 

It is as plain as a pike staff that, if we confused 
dimensions when computing lengths and areas and 
volumes, we would wreck all the architectural and 
engineering structures of the world, and at the same 
time show ourselves stupider than block-heads. 

To analyse the classes of life we have to consider 
two very different kinds of phenomena : the one 
embraced under the collective name Inorganic 
chemistry the other under the collective name 


Organic chemistry, or the chemistry of hydro-car- 
bons. These divisions are made because of the pecu- 
liar properties of the elements chiefly involved in the 
second class. The properties of matter are so dis- 
tributed among the elements that three of them 
Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon possess an en- 
semble of unique characteristics. The number of 
reactions in inorganic chemistry are relatively few, 
but in organic chemistry in the chemistry of these 
three elements the number of different compounds is 
practically unlimited. Up to 1910, we knew of more 
than 79 elements of which the whole number of re- 
actions amounted to only a few hundreds, but among 
the remaining three elements Carbon, Hydrogen 
and Oxygen the reactions were known to be prac- 
tically unlimited in number and possibilities ; this fact 
must have very far reaching consequences. As far 
as energies are concerned, we have to take them as 
nature reveals them to us. Here more than ever, 
mathematical thinking is essential and will help enor- 
mously. The reactions in inorganic chemistry 
always involve the phenomenon of heat, sometimes 
light, and in some instances an unusual energy is 
produced called electricity. Until now, the radio- 
active elements represent a group too insufficiently 
known for an enlargement here upon this subject. 

The organic compounds being unlimited in number 
and possibilities and with their unique characteristics, 


represent of course, a different class of phenomena, 
but being, at the same time, chemical they include 
the basic chemical phenomena involved in all chem- 
ical reactions, but being unique in many other re- 
spects, they also have an infinitely vast field of unique 
characteristics. Among the energetic phenomena of 
organic chemistry, besides the few mentioned above 
there are NEW AND UNIQUE energetic phenomena 
occurring in this dimension. 

Of these phenomena, mention may be made of 
the phenomenon "life," the phenomenon of the "in- 
stincts" and of the "mind" in general. These ener- 
getic phenomena are unique for the unique chemistry 
of the three unique elements. It is obvious that this 
"uniqueness" is the reason why these phenomena 
must be classified as belonging to or having a higher 
dimensionality than belongs to the phenomena of in- 
organic chemistry just as the uniqueness of the prop- 
erties of a volume as compared with surface prop- 
erties depends upon the fact that a volume has a 
higher dimensionality than a surface. Just as this 
difference of dimensions makes the whole difference 
between the geometry of volumes and the geometry 
of surfaces, the difference between the two chemis- 
tries involves a difference of dimensionality. 

The higher energies of the chemistries of tKe 
higher dimensionality are very difficult to define; my 
descriptions are no better than the description of 


life given by Professor Wilhelm Roux, in his Der 
Kampf der Teile im Organismus, Leipzig, 1881, 
which are equally unsatisfactory. In want of a bet- 
ter, I quote him. He defines a living being as a natu- 
ral object which possesses the following nine char- 
acteristic autonomous activities : Autonomous change, 
Autonomous excretion, Autonomous ingestion, Au- 
tonomous assimilation, Autonomous growth, Auton- 
omous movement, Autonomous multiplication, Au- 
tonomous transmission of hereditary characteristics 
and Autonomous development. The words "Au- 
tonomous activities" are important because they hint 
at the dimensional differences of these energies. But 
a better word should be found to define the dimen- 
sional differences between the activities found in 
inorganic chemistry and those found in organic 
chemistry. We see it is a mistake to speak about 
"life" in a crystal, in the same sense in which we 
use the word life to name the curious AUTONOMOUS 
ANOTHER DIMENSION than the activities in inorganic 
chemistry. For the so-called life in the crystals 
the not AUTONOMOUS (or anautonomous) activities 
of crystals another word than life should be found. 
In the theory of crystals the term life is purely 
rhetorical: its use there is very injurious to sound 
science. These old ideas of "life" in crystals are 
profoundly unscientific and serve as one of the best 


examples of the frequent confusion or intermixing 
of dimensions a confusion due to unmathematical, 
logically incorrect ways of thinking. If crystals 
"live," then volumes are surfaces, and 125 cubic 
units=25 square units absurdities belonging to the 
"childhood of humanity." 

"Crystals can grow in a proper solution, and can regen- 
erate their form in such a solution when broken or injured; 
it is even possible to prevent or retard the formation of 
crystals in a supersaturated solution by preventing 'germs' 
in the air from getting into the solution, an observation which 
was later utilized by Schroeder and Pasteur in their experi- 
ments on spontaneous generation. However, the analogies 
between a living organism and a crystal are merely superficial 
and it is by pointing out the fundamental differences between 
the behavior of crystals and that of living organisms that 
we can best understand the specific difference between non- 
living and living matter. It is true that a crystal can grow, 
but it will do so only in a supersaturated solution of its own 
substance. Just the reverse is true for living organisms. In 
order to make bacteria or the cells of our body grow, solu- 
tions of the split products of the substances composing them 
and not the substances themselves must be available to the 
cells; second, these solutions must not be supersaturated, on 
the contrary, they must be dilute; and third, growth leads 
in living organisms to cell division as soon as the mass of 
the cell reaches a certain limit. This process of cell division 
can not be claimed even metaphorically to exist in a crystal. 
A correct appreciation of these facts will give us an insight 
into the specific difference between non-living and living mat- 
ter. The formation of living matter consists in the synthesis 
of the proteins, nucleins, fats, and carbohydrates of the cells, 
from split products. . . . 


"The essential difference between living and non-living 
matter consists then in this: the living cell synthesizes its 
own complicated specific material from indifferent or non- 
specific simple compounds of the surrounding medium, while 
the crystal simply adds the molecules found in its super- 
saturated solution. This synthetic power of transforming 
small 'building stones' into the complicated compounds 
specific for each organism is the 'secret of life' or rather one 
of the secrets of life." (The Organism as a Whole, by 
Jacques Loeb.) 

It will be explained later that one of the energetic 
phenomena of organic chemistry the "mind," 
which is one of the energies characteristic of this 
class of phenomena, is "autonomous," is "selfpro- 
pelling" and true to its dimensionality. If we 
analyse the classes of life, we readily find that there 
are three cardinal classes which are radically distinct 
in function. A short analysis will disclose to us that, 
though minerals have various activities, they are not 
"living." The plants have a very definite and well 
known function the transformation of solar energy 
into organic chemical energy. They are a class of 
life which appropriates one kind of energy, converts 
it into another kind and stores it up; in that sense 
they are a kind of storage battery for the solar 
energy; and so I define THE PLANTS AS THE CHEM- 
ISTRY-BINDING class of life. 

The animals use the highly dynamic products of 
the chemistry-binding class the plants as food, 


and those products the results of plant-transforma- 
tion undergo in animals a further transformation 
into yet higher forms; and the animals are corre- 
spondingly a more dynamic class of life ; their energy 
is kinetic; they have a remarkable freedom and 
power which the plants do not possess I mean the 
freedom and faculty to move about in space; and so 

And now what shall we say of human beings? 
What is to be our definition of Man? Like the ani- 
mals, human beings do indeed possess the space- 
binding capacity but, over and above that, human 
beings possess a most remarkable capacity which is 
entirely peculiar to them I mean the capacity to 
summarise, digest and appropriate the labors and 
experiences of the past; I mean the capacity to use 
the fruits of past labors and experiences as intellec- 
tual or spiritual capital for developments in the 
present; I mean the capacity to employ as instru- 
ments of increasing power the accumulated achieve- 
ments of the all-precious lives of the past generations- 
spent in trial and error, trial and success; I mean the 
capacity of human beings to conduct their lives in 
the ever increasing light of inherited wisdom; I mean 
the capacity in virtue of which man is at once the 
heritor of the by-gone ages and the trustee of pos- 
terity. And because humanity is just this magnifi- 


cent natural agency by which the past lives in the 
present and the present for the future, I define 
HUMANITY, in the universal tongue of mathematics 
and mechanics, to be the TIME-BINDING CLASS OF 

These definitions of the cardinal classes of life 
are, it will be noted, obtained from direct observa- 
tion; they are so simple and so important that I can- 
not over-emphasize the necessity of grasping them 
and most especially the definition of Man. For these 
simple definitions and especially that of Humanity 
will profoundly transform the whole conception of 
human life in every field of interest and activity; 
and, what is more important than all, the definition 
of Man will give us a starting point for discovering 
the natural laws of human nature of the human 
class of life. The definitions of the classes of life 
represent the different classes as distinct in respect 
to dimensionality; and this is extremely important 
for no measure or rule of one class can be applied 
to the other, without making grave mistakes. For 
example, to treat a human being as an animal as 
a mere space-binder because humans have certain 
animal propensities, is an error of the same type and 
grossness as to treat a cube as a surface because it 
has surface properties. It is absolutely essential to 
grasp that fact if we are ever to have a science 
of human nature. 


We can represent the different classes of life in 
three life coordinates. The minerals, with their in- 
organic activities would be the Zero (o) dimension 
of "life" that is the lifeless class here represented 
by the point M. 

The plants, with their "autonomous" growth, to 
be represented by the ONE DIMENSIONAL line MP. 

The animals, with their "autonomous" capacity 
to grow and to be active in space by the TWO DIMEN- 
SIONAL plane PAM. 

The humans, with their "autonomous" capacity to 
grow, to be active in space AND TO BE ACTIVE IN 

H (Humans) 

(Minerals) M 



Such diagrammatic illustrations must not be taken 
too literally; they are like figures of speech helpful 
if understood harmful if not understood. The 
reader should reflect upon the simple idea of dimen- 


sions until he sees clearly that the idea is not merely 
a thing of interest or of convenience, but is abso- 
lutely essential as a means of discriminating the car- 
dinal classes of life from one another and of con- 
ceiving each class to be what it is instead of mixing 
it confusedly with something radically different. It 
will greatly help the reader if he will retire to the 
quiet of his cloister and there meditate about as 
follows. A line has one dimension ; a plane has two ; 
a plane contains lines and so it has line properties 
ow^-dimensional properties but it has other prop- 
erties fwo-dimensional properties and it is these 
that are peculiar to it, give it its own character, 
and make it what it is a plane and not a line. 
So animals have some plant properties they 
grow, for example but animals have other prop- 
erties autonomous mobility, for example, 
properties of higher dimensionality or type and 
it is these that make animals animals and not 
plants. Just so, human beings have certain ani- 
mal properties autonomous mobility, for example, 
or physical appetites but humans have other prop- 
erties or propensities ethical sense, for example, 
logical sense, inventiveness, progressiveness prop- 
erties or propensities of higher dimensionality, level, 
or type and it is these propensities and powers 
that make human beings human and not animal. 
When and only when this fact is clearly seen and 


keenly realized, there will begin the science of man 
* the science and art of human nature for then 
and only then we shall begin to escape from the age- 
long untold immeasurable evils that come from re- 
garding and treating human beings as animals, as 
mere binders of space, and we may look forward 
to an ethics, a jurisprudence and economics, a gov- 
ernance a science and art of human life and so- 
ciety based upon the laws of human nature because 
based upon the just conception of humanity as the 
time-binding class of life, creators and improvers of 
good, destined to endless advancement, in accord 
with the potencies of Human Nature.* 

* It may be contended by some that animals have been making 
"progress" or some may say that animals also "bind-time." 
This use of words would again become mere verbalism, a mere 
talking about words mere speculation having nothing to do 
with facts or with correct thinking, in which there is no inter- 
mixing of dimensions. The peculiar faculty belonging exclusively 
to humans which I designate as "time-binding" I have clearly 
defined as an exponential function of time in the following chapter. 
If people are pleased to talk about the "progress" of animals, 
they can hardly fail to see clearly that it differs both in function 
and in type or dimension from what is rightly meant by human 
progress; human time-binding capacity lies in an entirely dif- 
ferent dimension from that of animals. So, if any persons wish 
to talk of animal "progress" or animal "time-binding," they 
should invent a suitable word for it to save them from the 
blunder of confusing types or mixing dimensions. 

This mathematical discrimination between classes, types, 
dimensions is of the utmost importance in the natural sciences, 
because of the transmutation of species. To adjust the Darwin 
theory to dimensionality is a somewhat more difficult problem; 
it involves the concept of the "continuum"; but with the 
modern theory of de Vries, these things are self evident. If 
animals really progress, which is doubtful because they are an 


Humanity is still in its childhood; we have 
"bound" so little time in the course of the centuries, 
which are so brief in the scheme of the universe. At 
the bottom of every human activity, historical fact 
or trend of civilization, there lies some doctrine or 
conception of so-called "truth." Apples had fallen 
from trees for ages, but without any important re- 
sults in the economy of humanity. The fact that a 
fallen apple hit Newton, led to the discovery of the 
theory of gravitation; this changed our whole world 
conception, our sciences and our activities; it power- 
fully stimulated the development of all the branches 
of natural and technological knowledge. Even in 
the event of the Newtonian laws being proved to be 
not quite correct, they have served a great purpose 
in enabling us to understand natural phenomena in 
a sufficiently approximate way to make it possible to 
build up modern technology and to develop our 
physical science to the point where it was necessary 
and possible to make a correction of the Newtonian 

A similar organic change in our conception of 
human life and its phenomena is involved in the fore- 
going definitions of the classes of life; they will re- 
place basic errors with scientific truths of fundamen- 

older form of life than humans and they have not shown any 
noticeable progress to the knowledge of man, their progress is 
so small in comparison with man's that it may be said, in mathe- 
matical terms, to be negligible as an infinitesimal of higher order. 


tal importance ; they will form the basis for scientific 
development of a permanent civilization in place of 
the periodically convulsive so-called civilizations of 
the past and present. To know the cause of evil and 
error is to find the cure. 



TVTAN has ever been the greatest puzzle to man. 
^ * There are many and important reasons for 
this fact. As the subject of this book is not a theo- 
retical, academic study of man, of which too many 
have already been written, I will not recount the 
reasons, but will confine myself to the more pressing 
matters of the task in hand, which is that of pointing 
the way to the science and art of Human Engineer- 
ing. The two facts which have to be dealt with first, 
are the two which have most retarded human prog- 
ress: (i) there has never been a true definition of 
man nor a just conception of his role in the curious 
drama of the world; in consequence of which there 
has never been a proper principle or starting point 
for a science of humanity. It has never been realized 
that man is a being of a dimension or type different 
,from that of animals and the characteristic nature 
of man has not been understood; (2) man has 
always been regarded either as an animal or as a 
supernatural phenomenon. The facts are that man 
is not supernatural but is literally a part of nature 


WHAT is MAN? 67 

and that human beings are not animals. We have 
seen that the animals are truly characterized by 
their autonomous mobility their space-binding ca- 
pacity animals are space-binders. We have seen 
that human beings are characterized by their creative 
power, by the power to make the past live in the 
present and the present for the future, by their ca- 
pacity to bind time human beings are time-binders. 
These concepts are basic and impersonal; arrived 
at mathematically, they are mathematically correct. 

It does not matter at all how the first man, the 
first time-binder, was produced; the fact remains 
that he was somewhere, somehow produced. To 
know anything that is to-day of fundamental interest 
about man, we have to analyse man in three coordi- 
nates in three capacities; namely, his chemistry, his 
activities in space, and especially his activities in 
time; whereas in the study of animals we have to 
consider only two factors: their chemistry and their 
activities in space. 

Let us imagine that the aboriginal original 
human specimen was one of two brother apes, A 
and B; they were alike in every respect; both were 
animal space-binders; but something strange hap- 
pened to B; he became the first time-binder, a 
human. No matter how, this "something" made the 
change in him that lifted .him to a higher dimen- 
sion; it is enough that in some-wise, over and above 


his animal capacity for binding space, there was 
superadded the marvelous new capacity for binding- 
time. He had thus a new faculty, he belonged to 
a new dimension; but, of course, he did not realize 
it; and because he had this new capacity he was 
able to analyze his brother "A" ; he observed "A 
is my brother; he is an animal; but he is my brother; 
therefeore, / AM AN ANIMAL." This fatal first con- 
clusion, reached by false analogy, by neglecting a 
fact, has been the chief source of human woe for 
half a million years and it still survives. The time- 
binding capacity, first manifest in B, increased more 
and more, with the days and each generation, until 
in the course of centuries man felt himself increas- 
ingly somehow different from the animal, but he 
could not explain. He said to himself, "If I 
am an animal there is also in me something higher, 
a spark of some thing supernatural." 

With this conclusion he estranged himself, as 
something apart from nature, and formulated the 
impasse, which put him in a cul-de-sac of a double 
life. He was neither true to the "supernatural" 
which he could not know and therefore, could not 
emulate, nor was he true to the "animal" which he 
scorned. Having put himself outside the "natural 
laws," he was not really true to any law and con- 
demned himself to a life of hypocrisy, and estab- 
lished speculative, artificial, unnatural laws. 

WHAT is MAN? 69 

"How blind our familiar assumptions make us! 
Among the animals, man, at least, has long been 
wont to regard himself as a being quite apart from 
and not as part of the cosmos round about him. 
From this he has detached himself in thought, he has 
estranged and objectified the world, and lost the 
sense that he is of it. And this age-long habit and 
point of view, which has fashioned his life and con- 
trolled his thought, lending its characteristic mark 
and color to his whole philosophy and art and learn- 
ing, is still maintained, partly because of its con- 
venience, no doubt, and partly by force of inertia 
and sheer conservatism, in the very teeth of the 
strongest probabilities of biological science. Prob- 
ably no other single hypothesis has less to recom- 
mend it, and yet no other so completely dominates 
the human mind." (Cassius J. Keyser, loc. cit.) 
And this monstrous conception is current to-day: 
millions still look upon man as a mixture of animal 
and something supernatural. 

There is no doubt that the engineering of human 
society is a difficult and complicated problem of tre- 
mendous ethical responsibility, for it involves the 
welfare of mankind throughout an unending suc- 
cession of generations. The science of Human 
Engineering can not be built upon false conceptions 
of human nature. It can not be built on the con- 
ception of man as a kind of animal; it can not be 


built on the conception of man as a mixture of nat- 
ural and supernatural. It must be built upon the 
conception of man as being at once natural and 
higher in dimensionality than the animals. It must 
be built upon the scientific conception of mankind as 
characterized by their time-binding capacity and 
function. This conception radically alters our whole 
view of human life, human society, and the world. 

It must be obvious to any one that time-binding 
is the only natural criterion and standard for the 
time-binding class of life. This mighty term time- 
binding when comprehended, will be found to em- 
brace the WHOLE of the natural laws, the natural 
ethics, the natural philosophy, the natural sociology, 
the natural economics, the natural governance, to be 
brought into the education of time-binders; then 
really peaceful and progressive civilization, without 
periodical collapses and violent readjustments, will 
commence; not before. Everything which is really 
"time-binding" is in the HUMAN DIMENSION; there- 
fore, it will represent every quality that is implied 
in such words as good, just, right, beautiful; while 
everything that is merely space-binding will be classi- 
fied as "animal" and be thus assessed at its proper 
value. Those ignorant "masters of our destinies" 
who regard humans as animals or as monstrous 
hybrids of natural and supernatural must be de- 
throned by scientific education. 

WHAT is MAN? 71 

Humans can be literally poisoned by false ideas 
and false teachings. Many people have a just horror 
at the thought of putting poison into tea or coffee, 
but seem unable to realize that, when they teach false 
ideas and false doctrines, they are poisoning the 
time-binding capacity of their fellow men and women. 
One has to stop and think ! There is nothing mystical 
about the fact that ideas and words are energies 
which powerfully affect the physico-chemical base of 
our time-binding activities. Humans are thus made 
untrue to "human nature." Hypnotism is a known 
fact. It has been proved that a man can be so 
hypnotized that in a certain time which has been 
suggested to him, he will murder or commit arson 
or theft; that, under hypnotic influence, the personal 
morale of the individual has only a small influence 
upon his conduct; the subject obeys the hypnotic sug- 
gestions, no matter how immoral they are. The 
conception of man as a mixture of animal and super- 
natural has for* ages kept human beings under the 
deadly spell of the suggestion that, animal selfish- 
ness and animal greediness are their essential char- 
acter, and the spell has operated to suppress their 
REAL HUMAN NATURE and to prevent it from ex- 
pressing itself naturally and freely. 

On the other hand, when human beings are edu- 
cated to a lively realization that they are by nature 
time-binding creatures, then they will spontaneously 


live in accordance with their time-binding nature, 
which, as I have said, is the source and support of 
the highest ideals. 

What is achieved in blaming a man for being self- 
ish and greedy if he acts under the influence of a 
social environment and education which teach him 
that he is an animal and that selfishness and greedi- 
ness are of the essence of his nature? 

Even so eminent a philosopher and psychologist as 
Spencer tells us: "Of self-evident truths so dealt 
with, the one which here concerns us is that a crea- 
ture must live before it can act. . . . Ethics has to 
recognize the truth that egoism comes before altru- 
ism." This is true for ANIMALS, because animals 
die out from lack of food when their natural supply 
of it is insufficient because they have NOT THE 


true for the HUMAN DIMENSION. 

Why not? Because humans through their time- 
binding capacity are first of all creators and so their 
number is not controlled by the supply of unaided 
nature, but only by men's artificial productivity, 


Man, therefore, by the very intrinsic character of 
TO LIVE (through the action of parents or society) 
which is not the case with animals. The misunder- 

WHAT is MAN? 73 

standing of this simple truth is largely accountable 
for the evil of our ethical and economic systems or 
lack of systems. As a matter of fact, if humanity 
were to live in complete accord with the animal con- 
ception of man, artificial production time-binding 
production would cease and ninety per cent of 
mankind would perish by starvation. It is just 
because human beings are not animals but are time- 
binders not mere finders but creators of food and 
shelter that they are able to live in such vast 

Here even the blind must see the effect of higher 
dimensionality, and this effect becomes in turn the 
cause of other effects which produce still others, and 
so on in an endless chain. WE LIVE BECAUSE WE 


is NOT A KIND OF ANIMAL. It is all so simple, if 
only we apply a little sound logic in our thinking 
about human nature and human affairs. If human 
ethics are to be human, are to be in the human 
dimension, the postulates of ethics must be changed; 


the laws of ethics the laws of right living are 
natural laws laws of human nature laws having 
their whole source and sanction in the time-binding 
capacity and time-binding activity peculiar to man. 
Human excellence is excellence in time-binding, and 


must be measured and rewarded by time-binding 
standards of worth. 

Humanity, in order to live, must produce crea- 
tively and therefore must be guided by applied 
science, by technology; and this means that the so- 
called social sciences of ethics, jurisprudence, psy- 
chology, economics, sociology, politics, and govern- 
ment must be emancipated from medieval meta- 
physics; they must be made scientific; they must be 
technologized; they must be made to progress and 
to function in the proper dimension the human 
dimension and not that of animals: they must be 
made time-binding sciences. 

Can this be done? I have no doubt that it can. 
For what is human life after all? 

To a general in the battlefield, human life is a 
factor which, if properly used, can destroy the 
enemy. To an engineer human life is an equivalent 
to energy, or a capacity to do work, mental or mus- 
cular, and the moment something is found to be a 
source of energy and to have the capacity of doing 
work, the first thing to do, from the engineer's point 
-of view, is to analyse the generator with a view to 
discovering how best to conserve it, to improve it, 
and bring it to the level of maximum productivity. 
Human beings are very complicated energy-produc- 
ing batteries differing widely in quality and magni- 
tude of productive power. Experience has shown 

WHAT is MAN? 75 

that these batteries are, first of all, chemical bat- 
teries producing a mysterious energy. If these bat- 
teries are not supplied periodically with a more or 
less constant quantity of some chemical elements 
called food and air, the batteries will cease to func- 
tion they will die. In the examination of the struc- 
ture of these batteries we find that the chemical base 
is very much accentuated all through the structure. 
This chemical generator is divided into branches 
each of which has a very different role which it 
must perform in harmony with all the others. The 
mechanical parts of the structure are built in con- 
formity to the rules of mechanics and are automat- 
ically furnished with lubrication and with chemical 
supplies for automatically renewing worn-out parts. 
The chemical processes not only deposit particles of 
mass for the structure of the generator but produce 
some very powerful unknown kinds of energies or 
vibrations which make all the chemical parts func- 
tion ; we find also a mysterious apparatus with a com- 
plex of wires which we call brain glands, and nerves; 
and, finally, these human batteries have the remark- 
able capacity of reproduction. 

These functions are familiar to everybody. From 
the knowledge of other physical, mechanical and 
chemical phenomena of nature, we must come to the 
conclusion, that this human battery is the most per- 
fect example of a complex engine; it has all the 


peculiarities of a chemical battery combined with a 
generator of a peculiar energy called life; above all, 
it has mental or spiritual capacities; it is thus 
equipped with both mental and mechanical means for 
producing work. The parts and functions of this 
marvelous engine have been the subject of a vast 
amount of research in various special branches of 
science. A very noteworthy fact is that both the 
physical work and the mental work of this human 
engine are always accompanied by both physical and 
chemical changes in the structure of its machinery 
corresponding to the wear and tear of non-living 
engines. It also presents certain sexual and spiritual 
phenomena that have a striking likeness to certain 
phenomena, especially wireless phenomena, to elec- 
tricity and to radium. This human engine-battery 
is of unusual strength, durability and perfection; and 
yet it is very liable to damage and even wreckage, if 
not properly used. The controlling factors are very 
delicate and so the engine is very capricious. Very 
special training and understanding are necessary for 
its control. 

The reader may wish to ask: What is the essence 
of the time-binding power of Man? Talk of es- 
sences is metaphysical it is not scientific. Let me 
explain by an example. 

What is electricity? The scientific answer is: elec- 
tricity is that which exhibits such and such phe- 

WHAT is MAN? 77 

nomena. Electricity means nothing but a certain 
group of phenomena called electric. We are study- 
ing electricity when we are studying those phe- 
nomena. Thus it is in physics there is no talk of 
essences. So, too, in Human Engineering we 
shall not talk of the essence of time-binding but only 
of the phenomena and the laws thereof. What has 
led to the development of electric appliances is 
knowledge of electrical phenomena not meta- 
physical talk about the electrical essence. And what 
will lead to the science and art of Human Engineer- 
ing is knowledge of time-binding phenomena not 
vain babble about an essence of time-binding power. 
There is no mystery about the word time-binding. 
Some descriptive term was necessary to indicate that 
human capacity which discriminates human beings 
from animals and marks man as man. For that use 
the appropriateness of the term time-binding 
becomes more and more manifest upon reflection. 

What are the conditions of life upon this earth? 
Is there war or peace in daily life? All living beings 
require food; they multiply in a geometrical ratio; 
and so the natural productivity of the soil becomes 
increasingly inadequate. The tendency to increase 
in geometrical ratio is true of all life vegetable, 
animal and human, but the tendency is checked by 
various counteracting influences, natural and artifi- 
cial. A short time ago these checks had so operated 


to annul the law of increase as almost to stop the 
growth of human population. It is only by the time- 
binding capacity of man by scientific progress and 
technological invention that the checks have been 
overcome. And so in the last century the popula- 
tion of Europe increased more than it had increased 
in several centuries before. Impoverished soil, exces- 
sive heat or cold, excessive moisture, the lack of rain- 
fall, and many other factors are hostile to life. It 
is evident, therefore, that human life must especially 
struggle for existence; it must carry on a perpetual 
contest for self preservation. It seems obvious that, 
if there is perpetual war in every-day life, war 
methods must be applied. 

We have just .passed through a tremendous world- 
wide military war and we developed special ways of 
producing power to overcome the enemy. We were 
thus driven to discover some of the hidden sources 
of power and all of our old habits and ideas were 
bent toward military methods and military tech- 
nology. The war of every-day life against hostile 
elements is war for the subjugation of physical 
nature and not for the conquest of people. It is a 
war carried on by the time-binding power of men 
pitted against natural obstacles, and its progressive 
triumph means progressive advancement in human 

The lesson of the World War should not be 

WHAT is MAN? 79 

missed through failure to analyse it. When nations 
war with nations, the normal daily war of millions 
and millions of individuals to subjugate natural re- 
sources to human uses is interrupted, and the slow- 
gathered fruits of measureless toil are destroyed. 

But peaceful war, war for the conquest of nature, 
involves the use of methods of technology and, what 
is even more important, technological philosophy, 
law and ethics. 

What I want to emphasize in this little book, is 
the need of a thoroughgoing revision of our ideas; 
and the revision must be made by engineering minds 
in order that our ideas may be made to match facts. 
If we are ill, we consult a physician or a surgeon, 
not a charlatan. We must learn that, when there is 
trouble with the producing power of the world, we 
have to consult an engineer, an expert on power. 
Politicians, diplomats, and lawyers do not understand 
the problem. What I am advocating is that we 
must learn to ask those who know how to produce 
things, instead of asking those whose profession is 
to fight for the division of things produced by nature 
or by other human beings. 

As a matter of fact our civilization has been for 
a long time disorganized to the point of disease. 
Lately through the whirl of changing conditions, due 
to the great release of power in the new-born giant 
technology, the disorganization has become acute. 


The sick seldom know the cure for themselves. If 
the cure is to be enduring, we have to go to the 
source, and this can be done only by men familiar, 
not only with effects but also with the causes. 

Money is not the wealth of a nation, but produc- 
tion is wealth; so ordered production is the main 
object for humanity. But to have the maximum of 
production, it is necessary to have production put 
on a sound basis. No mere preaching of brotherly 
love, or class hatred, will produce one single brick 
for the building of the future temple of human vic- 
tory the temple of human civilization. Ordered 
production demands analysis of basic facts. 

This era is essentially an industrial era. To pro- 
duce we have to have : (i) raw material or soil; (2) 
instruments for production: tools and machines; 
and (3) the application of power. 

The three requirements may be briefly character- 
ized and appraised as follows: 

( i ) Raw material and soil are products of na- 
ture; humanity simply took them and had the use 
of them for nothing, because it is impossible to call 
a prayer of thanksgiving (if any) addressed to a 
"creator" as payment to gods or men. But raw 
material and soil, in the conditions in which nature 
produces them, are of very little immediate benefit 
to humanity, because untilled soil produces very 
little food for humans, and raw material such as 

WHAT is MAN? 81 

wood, coal, oil, iron, copper, etc., are completely 
useless to humanity until after human work is ap- 
plied to them. It is necessary to cut a tree for the 
making of timber; it is necessary to excavate the 
minerals, and even then, only by applying further 
human work is it possible to make them available 
for any human use. So, it is obvious that even raw 
materials in the form in which nature has produced 
them, are mostly of no value and unavailable for 
use, unless reproduced through the process of 
"human creative production." Therefore, we may 
well conclude that "raw material" must be divided 
into two very distinct classes: (a) raw material as 
produced by nature nature's free gift which in 
its original form and place has practically no use- 
value; and (b) raw material reproduced by man's 
mental and muscular activities, by his "time-binding" 
capacities. Raw materials of the second class have 
an enormous use-value; indeed they make the exist- 
ence of humanity possible. 

As to the second requirement for production, 

(2) Tools and machines, it is obvious that 
"'tools and machines" are made of raw material by 
human work, mental and muscular. 

And, finally: 

(3) The application of power. Different sources 
of natural energy and power are known. The most 


important available source of energy for this globe 
is the sun the heat of the sun. This solar heat is 
the origin of water power, of wind power, and of 
the power bound up in coal, of the chemistry, growth 
and transforming agency of plants.* 

* It must be remembered here that our world is, first of all, a 
dynamic conglomeration of matter and energy, which to-day, as 
well as in the first period of primitive organic life, took and takes 
different known and unknown forms. One of these forms of 
energy is the chemical energy, with its tendency to combinations 
and exchanges. Different elements act in different ways. The 
history of the earth and its life is simply the history of different 
chemical periods, with different transformations of energy. A 
strange fact is to be noticed about nitrogen. Nitrogen chemi- 
cally has an exceptional inertness toward most other substances, 
but once it is a component part of a substance, almost all of these 
combinations are a very powerful source of energy, and all of 
them have a very strong effect upon organic life. Nitric acid 
acts through oxidation, the substances are burned up by the 
oxygen given off from the acid. Nitric acid occurs in nature, 
in a combination called nitrates. From the soil the nitrates 
pass into the plant. Nitrite of amyl acts upon our organs in a 
most violent and spasmodic way. Nitrous oxide is the so-called 
laughing gas. 

Alkaloids are compounds of a vegetable origin, generally of 
complex composition and capable of producing marked effects 
upon animals. They all contain nitrogen. Explosives which 
are a chemical means of storing tremendous amounts of energy, 
are mostly of some nitrogenous compound. Albumen is an 
organic compound of great importance in life, which, besides 
being the characteristic ingredient in the white of an egg, abounds 
in the serum of the blood and forms an important part of the 
muscles and brain. Albuminoids play the most vital role in 
plant life and are an extensive class of organic bodies found in 
plants and animals, as they are found to form the chief constitu- 
ents of blood, nerves. All albuminoids found in animals are 
produced by the processes fulfilled in plants. Their exact 
constitution is not known; analysis shows that they contain 
approximately: Carbon 50-55%, Hydrogen 6.9-7.5%, Nitrogen 
I5-I9%> Oxygen 20-24%, Sulphur 0.3-2.0%. Venous blood 

WHAT is MAN? $3 

All foods which the animals as well as the humans 
use are, already, the result of the solar energy trans- 
formed into what may be called chemical energy. 
Transformation of energies is building up of life. 

It is to be clearly seen that the only source of 
energy which can be directly appropriated and used 
by man or animal is vegetable food found in the 
wilderness; no other sources of power are avail- 
contains in 100 volumes: Nitrogen, 13; Carbonic Acid, 71.6; 
Oxygen, 15.3. Arterial blood: Nitrogen, 14.5; Carbonic Acid, 
62.3; Oxygen, 23.2. 

"Nitrogenous compounds in general, are extremely prone to 
decomposition; their decomposition often involving a sudden 
and great evolution of force. We see that substances classed 
as ferments. . . . are all nitrogenous . . . and we see that 
even in organisms and parts of organisms where the activities 
are least, such changes as do take place are initiated by a sub- 
stance containing nitrogen. . . . We see that organic matter is 
so constituted that small incidental actions are capable of 
initiating great reaction and liberating large quantities of power. 
. . . The seed of a plant contains nitrogenous substances in a 
far higher ratio than the rest of the plant; and the seed differs 
from the rest of the plant in its ability to initiate . . . extensive 
vital changes the changes constituting germination. Simi- 
larly in the bodies of animals ... in every living vegetal cell 
there is a certain part that contains nitrogen. This part initiates 
these changes which constitute the development of the cell. . . . 
It is a curious and significant fact that, in technology, we not 
only utilize the same principle of initiating extensive changes 
among comparatively stable compounds by the help of com- 
pounds much less stable, but we employ for the purpose com- 
pounds of the same general class. Our modern method of 
firing a gun is to place in close proximity with the gunpowder 
which we choose to decompose or explode, a small portion of 
fulminating powder, which is decomposed or exploded with 
extreme facility, and which on decomposing, communicates 
the consequent molecular disturbances to the less easily decom- 
posed gunpowder. When we ask what this fulminating powder 
is composed of, we find that it is a nitrogenous salt." Spencer. 


able for direct use; they have first to be mastered 
and directed by human brain. The same is true in 
regard to the getting of animal food, the creation 
of a water- or windmill, or a steam engine, or the 
art of using a team of horses, or a bushel of wheat; 
these are not available except by the use of the human 
"time-binding" power. 

This short survey of facts, known to everybody, 
brings us to the conclusion that all problems of pro- 
duction come ultimately to the analysis of 

1 i ) Natural resources of raw material and nat- 
ural energy, freely supplied by nature, which, as we 
have seen, in the form as produced by nature alone, 
have very little or no value for humanity; 

(2) The activity of the human brain (because 
human muscles are always directed by the brain) 
which gives value to the otherwise useless raw ma- 
terials and energies. 

Hence, to understand the processes of production, 
it is essential to realize that humanity is able to sur- 
vive only by virtue of the capacity of humans to ex- 
ploit natural resources to convert the products of 
nature into forms available for human needs. If 
humanity had only the capacity of apes, depending 
exclusively on wild fruits and the like, they would be 
confined to those comparatively small regions of the 
globe where the climate and the fertility of the soil 
are specially favorable. But in the case supposed, 

WHAT is MAN? 85 

humans would not be humans, they would not be 
time-binders they would be animals mere space- 

There are other facts which must be kept con- 
stantly in mind. One of them is that, in the world 
in which we live, there are natural laws of inorganic 
as well as organic phenomena. Another of the facts 
is, as before said, that the human class of life has the 
peculiar capacity of establishing the social laws and 
customs which regulate and influence its destinies, 
which help or hinder the processes of production 
upon which the lives and happiness of mankind 
essentially and fundamentally depend. 

It must not be lost sight of in this connection that 
the human class of life is a part and a product of 
nature, and that, therefore, there must be funda- 
mental laws which are natural for this class of life. 
A stone obeys the natural laws of stones; a liquid 
conforms to the natural law of liquids; a plant, to 
the natural laws of plants; an animal, to the natural 
laws of animals ; it follows inevitably that there must 
be natural laws for humans. 

But here the problem becomes more complicated; 
for the stone, the plant and the animal do not possess 
the intellectual power to create and initiate and so 
must blindly obey the laws that are natural for them; 
they are not free to determine their own destinies. 
Not so with man; man has the capacity and he 


can, through ignorance or neglect or mal-intent, 
deviate from, or misinterpret, the natural laws for 
the human class of life. Just therein lies the secret 
and the source of human chaos and woe a fact of 
such tremendous importance that it cannot be over- 
emphasized and it seems impossible to evade it 
longer. To discover the nature of Man and the 
laws of that nature, marks the summit of human 
enterprises. For to solve this problem is to open the 
way to everything which can be of importance to 
humanity to human welfare and happiness. 

The great problem has been felt as a powerful 
impulse throughout the ages of human striving, for 
in all times it has been evident to thinkers that upon 
the right solution of the problem must forever de- 
pend the welfare of mankind. Many "solutions" 
have been offered; and, though they have differed 
widely, they agree in one respect they have had a 
common fate the fate of being false. What has 
been the trouble? The trouble has been, in every 
instance, a radical misconception of what a human 
being really is. The problem is to discover the nat- 
ural laws of the human class of life. All the "solu- 
tions" offered in the course of history and those 
which are current to-day are of two and only two 
kinds zoological and mythological. The zoologi- 
cal solutions are those which grow out of the false 
conception according to which human beings are ani- 

WHAT is MAN? 87 

mals; if humans are animals, the laws of human 
nature are the laws of animal nature; and so the 
social "sciences" of ethics, law, politics, economics, 
government become nothing but branches of 
zoology; as sciences, they are the studies of animal 
life ; as arts, they are the arts of managing and con- 
trolling animals ; according to this zoological philos- 
ophy, human wisdom about human beings is animal 
wisdom about animals. 

The mythological "solutions" are those which 
start with the monstrous conception according to 
which human beings have no proper place in nature 
but are mixtures of natural and supernatural 
unions or combinations of animality and divinity. 
Such "solutions" contain no conception of natural 
law; scientifically judged, they are mythological ab- 
surdities muddle-headed chattering of crude and 
irresponsible metaphysics well-meaning no doubt, 
but silly, and deadly in their effects upon the interests 
of mankind, vitiating ethics, law, economics, politics 
and government. 

Such have been and still are the regnant philoso- 
phies of human nature. What is the remedy? How 
are the laws of human nature to be discovered? 

It is evident that the enterprise, like all other 
scientific enterprises, must be based upon and guided 
by realities. It is essential to realize that the great, 
central, dominant, all-embracing reality is the reality 


of human nature. If we misconceive this funda- 
mental matter, the enterprise must fail; that is both 
logically clear and clear in the sad light of history; 
but if we conceive it aright, we may confidently expect 
the enterprise to prosper. That is why, in the chap- 
ter on "The Classes of Life," I have laid so much 
stress on the absolute necessity of conceiving Man 
as being what he really is, and not something else. 
And we have discovered what man is : we have dis- 
covered that man is characterized by the capacity 
or power to bind time, and so we have defined 
humanity as the time-binding class of life. That con- 
cept is fundamental. It contains the germ of the 
science and art of Human Engineering. The prob- 
lem of discovering and applying the "laws of human 
nature" is the problem of discovering and applying 
to the conduct of life the laws of time-binding of 
time-binding activity of time-binding energy. This 
fact must be firmly seized and kept steadily in mind. 
Energy, we have noted, is the capacity to do work. 
In human economy work may be ( I ) useful or (2) 
neutral or (3) harmful. These words have no sig- 
nificance except in human economy. The energy of 
the human intellect is a time-binding energy, for it 
is able to direct, to use, to transform other energies. 
This time-binding energy is of higher rank of 
higher dimensionality than the other natural 
energies which it directs, controls, uses, and trans- 

WHAT is MAN? 89 

forms. This higher energy which is commonly 
called the mental or spiritual power of man is time- 
binding because it makes past achievements live in 
the present and present activities in time-to-come. It 
is an energy that initiates; it is an energy that cre- 
ates; it is an energy that can understand the past and 
foretell the future it is both historian and prophet; 
it is an energy that loads abstract time the vehicle 
of events with an ever-increasing burden of intel- 
lectual achievements, of spiritual wealth, destined for 
the civilization of posterity. And what is the natural 
law of the increase? What is the natural law of 
human advancements in all great matters of human 

The question is of utmost importance both theo- 
retically and practically, for the law whatever it be 
is a natural law a law of human nature a law 
of the time-binding energy of man. What is the 
law? We have already noted the law of arithmeti- 
cal progression and the law of geometric progres- 
sion; we have seen the immense difference between 
them; and we have seen that the natural law of 
human progress in each and every cardinal matter 
is a law like that of a rapidly increasing geometric 
progression. In other words, the natural law of 
human progress the natural law of amelioration in 
human affairs the fundamental law of human 
nature the basic law of the time-binding energy 


peculiar to man is a Logarithmic law a law of 
logarithmic increase. I beg the reader not to let 
the term bewilder him but to make it his own. It is 
easy to understand; and its significance is mighty and 
everlasting. Even its mathematical formulation can 
be understood by boys and girls. Let us see how the 
formulation looks. 

Suppose PR to denote the amount of progress 
made in some important field by a given genera- 
tion which we may call the "first" generation; 
where R denotes the common ratio the ratio of 
improvement that is, the number by which the 
progress of one generation must be multiplied to 
give the amount of progress made by the next gen- 
eration; then the amount of progress made by the 
second generation will be PR 2 ; that made by the 
third generation will be PR 3 ; and so on; now denote 
by T the number of generations, counting the first 
one and all that follow in endless succession. Then 
the following series will show the law of human 
progress in the chosen field: 

PR, PR 2 , PR 3 , PR*, PR*, . . . , PR T , PR T+1 , . . . ; 

notice how it goes; the first generation ends with PR, 
the second generation starts with PR, adds PR 2 , and 
ends with PR-\-PR 2 ; the third generation starts 
with PR+PR 2 , adds PR 3 and ends with PR + 
PR 2 +PR 3 ; and so on and on; the gain made in 

WHAT is MAN? gi 

the T tk generation is PR T ', the total gain made in 
T generations is 

. . . +PR T ', 

this total gain is given by the formula, 


Total gain in T generations =-5 - (PR T P). 

J\ i 

If we take R to be 2 (which is a very small ratio, 
requiring the progress of each generation to be 
merely double that of the preceding one) and if we 
take T to be (say) 10, then we see that the progress 
made by the single loth generation is PX2 10 , which 
is 1024 times the progress made in the " first " 
generation; and we readily compute that the total 
gain in 10 generations is 2046 times the progress 
made in the " first "generation. Moreover, to gain 
a just sense of the impressiveness of this law, the 
reader must reflect upon the fact that it operates, 
not merely on one field, but in all fields of human 
interest. " Operates in all fields " I have just now 
said; as a matter of fact, as before pointed out, it does 
not so operate now in all fields nor has it ever done 
so. My point is that it will so operate when we 
once acquire sense enough to let it do so. That 
sense we shall have when and only when we dis- 
cover that by nature we are time-binders and that 
the effectiveness of our time-binding capacity is not 


only a function of time but is, as I have explained, 
a logarithmic or exponential function of time a 
function in which time (T) enters as an exponent, 
as in the expression PR T , so that we humans are, 
unlike animals, naturally qualified not only to 
progress, but to progress more and more rapidly, with 
an always accelerating acceleration, as the generations 

This great fact is to be at once the basis, the 
regulator and guide in the science and art of Human 
Engineering. Whatever squares with that law of 
time-binding human energy, is right and makes for 
human weal; whatever contravenes it, is wrong and 
makes for human woe. 

And so I repeat that the world will have uninter- 
rupted, peaceful progress when and only when the 
so-called social "sciences" the life-regulating "sci- 
ences" of ethics, law, philosophy, economics, religion, 
politics, and government are technologized; when 
and only when they are made genuinely scientific in 
spirit and, method; for then and only then will they 
advance, like the natural, mathematical and techno- 
logical sciences, in conformity to the fundamental 
exponential law of the time-binding nature of man; 
then and then only, by the equal pace of progress in 
all cardinal matters, the equilibrium of social insti- 
tutions will remain stable and social cataclysms cease. 



T BEG the reader to allow me to begin this chap- 
ter with a word of warning. The reader is aware 
that Criticism by which I mean Thought may be 
any one of three kinds: it may be purely destructive; 
it may be purely constructive; or it may be both 
destructive and constructive at the same time. 
Purely destructive criticism is sometimes highly use- 
ful. If an old idea or a system of old ideas be false 
and therefore harmful, it is a genuine service to 
attack it and destroy it even if nothing be offered 
to take its place, just as it is good to destroy a rattle- 
snake lurking by a human pathway, even if one does 
not offer a substitute for the snake. But, however 
useful destructive criticism may be, it is not an easy 
service to render; for old ideas, however false and 
harmful, are protected alike by habit and by the 
inborn conservatism of many minds. Now, habit 
indeed is exceedingly useful even indispensable to 
the effective conduct of life for it enables us to do 
many useful things automatically and therefore 
easily, without conscious thinking, and thus to save 
our mental energy for other work; but for the same 



reason, habit is often very harmful; it makes us pro- 
tect false ideas automatically, and so when the de- 
structive critic endeavors to destroy such ideas by 
reasoning with us, he finds that he is trying to reason 
with automats with machines. Such is the chief 
difficulty encountered by destructive criticism. On 
the other hand, purely constructive criticism purely 
constructive thought consists in introducing new 
ideas of a kind that do not clash, or do not seem to 
clash, with old ones. Is such criticism or thought 
easy? Far from it. It has difficulties of its own. 
These are of two varieties: the difficulty of showing 
people who are content with their present stock of 
old ideas that the new ones are interesting or im- 
portant; and the great difficulty of making new ideas 
clear and intelligible, for the art of being clear and 
perfectly intelligible is very, very hard to acquire and 
to practise. The third kind of criticism the third 
kind of thought the kind that is at once both de- 
structive and constructive has a double aim that 
of destroying old ideas that are false and that of 
replacing them with new ideas that are true; and so 
the third kind of criticism or thought is the most dif- 
ficult of all, for it has to overcome both the difficulty 
of destructive criticism and that of constructive 

The reader, therefore, if he will be good enough 
to reflect a little upon the matter, can not fail to ap- 


predate the tremendous difficulties which beset the 
writing of this little book, for he must perceive, not 
only that the work belongs to the third kind of 
critical thought, but what is much more the errors 
it aims to destroy are fundamental, world-wide and 
old, while the true ideas it seeks to substitute for 
them are fundamental and new. This great diffi* 
culty, felt at every stage of this writing, is, for a 
reason to be presently explained, greatly enhanced 
and felt with especial keenness in the present chap- 
ter. I therefore beg the reader to give me here 
very special cooperation the cooperation of open- 
mindedness, candor and critical attention. It is essen- 
tial to keep in mind the nature of our enterprise as a 
whole, which is that of pointing the way to the science 
and art of Human Engineering and laying the foun- 
dations thereof; we have seen Human Engineering, 
when developed, is to be the science and art of so di- 
recting human energies and capacities as to make 
them contribute most effectively to the advancement 
of human welfare ; we have seen that this science and 
art must have its basis in a true conception of human 
nature a just conception of what Man really is and 
of his natural place in the complex of the world; 
we have seen that the ages-old and still current con- 
ceptions of man zoological and mythological con- 
ceptions, according to which human beings are either 
animals or else hybrids of animals and gods are 


mainly responsible for the dismal things in human 
history; we have seen that man, far from being an 
animal or a compound of natural and supernatural, 
is a perfectly natural being characterized by a certain 
capacity or power the capacity or power to bind 
time ; we have seen that humanity is, therefore, to be 
rightly conceived and scientifically defined as the 
time-binding class of life; we have seen that, there- 
fore, the laws of time-binding energies and time- 
binding phenomena are the laws of human nature; 
we have seen that this conception of man which 
must be the basic concept, the fundamental principle 
and the perpetual guide and regulator of Human 
Engineering is bound to work a profound transfor- 
mation in all our views on human affairs and, in par- 
ticular, must radically alter the so-called social 
"sciences" the life-regulating "sciences" of ethics, 
sociology, economics, politics and government ad- 
vancing them from their present estate of pseudo 
sciences to the level of genuine sciences and tech- 
nologizing them for the effective service of mankind. 
I call them "life-regulating," not because they play 
a more important part in human affairs than do the 
genuine sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry, 
astronomy and biology, for they are not more im- 
portant than these, but because they are, so to say, 
closer, more immediate and more obvious in their 
influence and effects. These life-regulating sciences 


are, of coiwse, not independent; they depend ulti- 
mately upon the genuine sciences for much of their 
power and ought to go to them for light and guid- 
ance; but what I mean here by saying they are not 
independent is that they are dependent upon each 
other, interpenetrating and interlocking in innumer- 
able ways. To show in detail how the so-called 
sciences will have to be transformed to make them 
accord with the right conception of man and qualify 
them for their proper business will eventually require 
a large volume or indeed volumes. 

In this introductory work I cannot deal fully with 
one of those "sciences" nor in suitable outline with 
each of them separately. I must be content here to 
deal, very briefly, with one of them by way of illus- 
tration and suggestion. Which one shall it be ? 

Now among these life-regulating "sciences" there 
is one specially marked by the importance of its sub- 
ject, by its central relation to the others and by its 
prominence in the public mind. I mean Economics 
the "dismal science" of Political Economy. For that 
reason I have chosen to deal with economics. In the 
present chapter I shall discuss three of its principal 
terms Wealth, Capital and Money with a view 
to showing that the current meanings and interpre- 
tations of these familiar terms must be very greatly 
deepened, enlarged and elevated if they are to accord 
with facts and laws of human nature and if the so- 


called "science" which employs them is to become 
a genuine science properly qualified to be a branch 
of Human Engineering. It is to be shown that the 
meanings currently attached by political economists 
and others to the terms in question belong to what 
I have called the period of humanity's childhood; 
and it is to be shown that the new meanings which 
the terms must receive belong to the period of 
humanity's manhood. It will be seen that the new 
meanings differ so radically from the old ones as 
to make it desirable for the sake of clarity to give 
the new meanings new names. But this, however 
scientifically desirable, is impracticable because the 
old terms wealth, capital, money are so deeply 
imbedded in the speech of the world. And here 
comes into view the very special difficulty alluded to 
above and which led me to request the reader's 
special cooperation in this chapter. The difficulty 
is not merely that of destroying old ideas that are 
false; it is not merely that of replacing them with 
true ideas that are new; it is that of causing people 
habitually to associate meanings that are new and 
true with terms associated so long, so universally, so 
uniformly with meanings that are false. 

The secret of philosophy, said Leibnitz, is to treat 
familiar things as unfamiliar. By the secret of 
"philosophy" Leibnitz meant the secret of what we 
call science. Let us apply this wholesome maxim in 


our present study; let us, in so far as we can, regard 
the familiar terms wealth, capital and money as 
unfamiliar; let us deal with them afresh; let us 
examine openmindedly the facts the phenomena 
to which the terms relate and ascertain scientifically 
the significance the terms must have in a genuine 
science of human economy. Examine "the facts" I 
say examine "the phenomena" for bending facts 
to theories is a vital danger, while bending theories 
to facts is essential to science and the peaceful prog- 
ress of society. 

Human beings have always had some sense of 
values some perception or cognition of values. In 
order to express or measure values, it was necessary 
to introduce units of measure, or units of exchange. 
People began to measure values by means of agri- 
cultural and other products, such as cattle, for ex- 
ample. The Latin word for cattle was pecus, and 
the word pecunia, which came to signify money, 
accounts for the meaning of our familiar word pecu- 
niary. The earliest units for measuring became un- 
suited to the increasing needs of growing trade, 
"business," or traffic. Finally a unit called money 
was adopted in which the base was the value of some 
weight of gold. Thus we see that money came to 
mean simply the accepted unit for measuring, repre- 
senting and expressing values of and in wealth. 

But what is wealth? I have said that the old 


conceptions of wealth, capital and money the con- 
ceptions that are still current throughout the world 
belong to the period of humanity's childhood 
they are childish conceptions. I have said that they 
must be replaced by scientific conceptions by con- 
ceptions fit for humanity's manhood. The change 
that must be made in our conceptions of the great 
terms is tremendous. It is necessary to analyse the 
current conceptions of wealth, capital, and money 
the childish conceptions of them in order to reveal 
their falseness, stupidity and folly. To do this we 
must enter the field of Political Economy a field 
beset with peculiar difficulties and dangers. All the 
Furies of private interests are involved. One gains 
the impression that there is little or no real desire 
to gain a true conception a scientific conception 
of wealth. Everybody seems to prefer an emotional 
definition a definition that suits his personal love 
of wealth or his hatred of it. Many definitions of 
wealth, capital and money are to be found in modern 
books of political economy definitions and books 
belonging to humanity's childhood. For the purpose 
of this writing they all of them look alike they 
sufficiently agree they are all of them childish. 
Mill, for example, tells us that wealth consists of 
"useful or agreeable things which possess exchange- 
able value." Of capital one of the simplest defi- 
nitions is this: 


"Capital is that part of wealth which is devoted to 
obtaining further wealth." (Alfred Marshall, Economics of 

Walker (in his Money, Trade and Industry) 
defines money as follows: 

"Money is that which passes freely from hand to hand 
throughout the community in final discharge of debts and 
full payment for commodities, being accepted equally with- 
out reference to the character or credit of the person who 
offers it, and without the intention of the person who receives 
it to consume it, or to enjoy it, or apply it to any other 
use than, in turn, to tender it to others in discharge of debts 
or full payment for commodities." 

Political economy has many different schools of 
thought and methods of classification. Its reason- 
ings are mainly speculative, metaphysical, and legal- 
istic; its ethics is zoological ethics, based on the 
zoological conception of man as an animal. The 
elements of natural logic and natural ethics are 
absent. The sophisticated ideas about the subject 
of political economy, bluntly do not correspond to 
facts. Our primitive forefather in the jungle would 
have died from hunger, cold, heat, blood poisoning 
or the attacks of wild animals, if he had not used 
his brain and muscles to take some stone or a piece 
of wood to knock down fruit from trees, to kill an 
animal, so as to use his hide for clothes and his meat 
for food, or to break wood and trees for a shelter 
and to make some weapons for defense and hunting. 


"In the first stone which he (the savage) flings at the 
wild animal he pursues, in the first stick that he seizes to 
strike down the fruit which hangs above his reach, we see 
the appropriation of one article for the purpose of aiding 
in the acquisition of another and thus we discover the origin 
of capital." (R. Torrens, An Essay on the Production of 

Our primitive forefather's first acquaintance with 
fire was probably through lightning; he discovered, 
probably by chance, the possibility of making fire by 
rubbing together two pieces of wood and by striking 
together two pieces of stone; he established one of 
the first facts in technology; he felt the warm effect 
of fire and also the good effect of broiling his food 
by finding some roasted animals in a fire. Thus 
nature revealed to him one of its great gifts, the 
stored-up energy of the sun in vegetation and its 
primitive beneficial use. He was already a time- 
binding being; evolution had brought him to that 
level. Being a product of nature, he was reflecting 
those natural laws that belong to his class of life; 
he had ceased to be static he had become dynamic 
progressiveness had got into his blood he was 
above the estate of animals. 

We also observe that primitive man produced 
commodities, acquired experiences, made observa- 
tions, and that some of the produced commodities 
had a use-value for other people and remained good 
for use, even after his death. 


The produced commodities were composed of raw 
material, freely supplied by nature, combined with 
some mental work which gave him the conception of 
how to make and to use the object, and some work on 
his part which finally shaped the thing; all of this 
mental and manual work consumed an amount of 
time. It is obvious that all of these elements are 
indispensable to produce anything of any value, or of 
any use-value. His child not only directly received 
some of the use-values produced by him, but was 
initiated into all of his experiences and observations. 
(As we know, power, as defined in mechanics, 
means the ratio of work done to the time used in 
doing it. ) 

All those things are time-binding phenomena pro- 
duced by the time-binding capacity of man; but man 
has not known that this capacity was his defining 
mark. We must notice the strange fact that, from 
the engineering point of view, humanity, though very 
developed in some ways, is childishly undeveloped 
in others. Humanity has some conceptions about 
dimensions and talks of the world in which we live 
as having three dimensions; yet even in its wildest 
imagination it can not picture tangibly a fourth 
dimension ; nay, humanity has not learned to grasp 
the real meanings of things that are basic or funda- 
mental. All of our conceptions are relative and 
comparative; all of them are based upon matters 


which we do not yet understand; for example, we 
talk of time, space, electricity, gravity, and so on, 
but no one has been able to define them in terms of 
the data of sensation; nevertheless and it is a fact 
of the greatest importance we learn how to use 
many things which we do not fully understand and 
are not yet able to define. 

In political economy the meagreness of our under- 
standing is especially remarkable; we have not yet 
grasped the obvious fact a fact of immeasurable 
import for all of the social sciences that with little 
exception the wealth and capital possessed by a given 
generation are not produced by its own toil but are 
the inherited fruit of dead men's toil a free gift 
of the past. We have yet to learn and apply the 
lesson that not only our material wealth and capital 
but our science and art and learning and wisdom 
all that goes to constitute our civilization were 
produced, not by our own labor, but by the time- 
binding energies of past generations. 

Primitive man used natural laws without knowing 
them or understanding them, but he was able to cause 
nature to express itself, by finding a way to release 
nature's stored up energy. Through the work of his 
brain and its direction in the use of his muscles, he 
found that some of his appliances were not good; 
he made better ones, and thus slowly at first, the 
progress of humanity went on. I will not enlarge 


upon the history of the evolution of civilization 
because it is told in many books. 

In the earliest times the religious, philosophical, 
legal and ethical systems had not been invented. The 
morale at that time was a natural morale. Humans 
knew that they did not create nature. They did not 
feel it "proper" to "expropriate the creator" and 
legalistically appropriate the earth and its treasure 
for themselves. They felt, in their unsophisticated 
morale, that being called into existence they had a 
natural right to exist and to use freely the gifts of 
nature in the preservation of their life; and that is 
what they did. 

After the death of a man, some of the objects pro- 
duced by him still survived, such as weapons, fishing 
or hunting instruments, or the caves adapted for liv- 
ing; a baby had to be nourished for some years by 
its parents or it would have died. Those facts had 
important consequences; objects made by someone 
for some particular use could be used by someone 
else, even after the death of one or more successive 
users ; again the experiences acquired by one member 
of a family or a group of people were taught by 
example or precept to others of the same generation 
and to the next generation. Such simple facts are the 
corner stones of our whole civilization and they are 
the direct result of the HUMAN CAPACITY OF TIME- 


The world to-day is full of controversy about 
wealth, capital, and money, and because humanity, 
through its peculiar time-binding power, binds this 
element "time" in an ever larger and larger degree, 
the controversy becomes more and more acute. 
Civilization as a process is the process of binding 
time ; progress is made by the fact that each genera- 
tion adds to the material and spiritual wealth which 
it inherits. Past achievements the fruit of bygone 
time thus live in the present, are augmented in the 
present, and transmitted to the future; the process 
goes on; time, the essential element, is so involved 
that, though it increases arithmetically, its fruit, 
civilization, advances geometrically. 

But there is another peculiarity in wealth and 
money: If a wooden or iron "inch" be allowed to 
rot or rust quietly on some shelf, this "inch" does 
not represent anything besides this piece of wood or 
iron. But if we take the MENTAL value of an inch, 
this unit of one of the measures of space, and use it, 
with other quantities, in the contemplation of the 
skies for the solving of an astronomical problem, it 
gives a prophetic answer that, in a certain place there 
is a star; this star, may be for years looked for in 
vain. Was it that the calculation was wrong? No, 
for after further search with telescopes of greater 
power, the star is found and the calculation thus 


It is obvious that the "unit" inch has no value 
by itself, but is very precious as a unit for measuring 
the phenomenon of length, which it perfectly repre- 
sents, and that is why it was introduced. 

It is exactly the same with money if the term be 
rightly understood. Understood aright, money, 
being the measure and representative of wealth, is 
in the main, the measure and the representative of 
dead men's toil; for, rightly understood, wealth is 
almost entirely the product of the labor of by-gone 
generations. This product, we have seen, involves 
the element of time as the chief factor. And so we 
discover how money, properly understood, is con- 
nected with time the main function of money is to 
measure and represent the accumulated products of 
the labor of past generations. Hoarded money is 
like an iron "inch" upon a shelf a useless lump; 
but when used as a measure and representative of 
wealth rightly understood, money renders invaluable 
service, for it then serves to measure and represent 
the living fruit of dead men's toil. 

For this reason, it is useless to argue who is the 
more important, the capitalist who has legal posses- 
sion of most of the material fruit of dead men's toil, 
or the laborer who has legal possession of but little 
of it. In the laborer, we do not now really look 
for his physical muscular labor ALONE; for this is 
replaced by mechanical or animal power as soon as 


it can be. What we do need from labor, and what 
we will always need, is his BRAIN HIS TIME-BIND- 

The population of the world may be divided into 
different classes; if the classes are not here enumer- 
ated in the customary way, it is because it is neces- 
sary to classify human beings, as nearly as possible, 
according to their "power-value." There is no asser- 
tion that this is an ideal classification, but if someone 
is moved to exclaim "what a foolish, unscientific 
division!" I will answer by saying: "I grant that 
the division is foolish and unscientific; but IT IS THE 
FACTS IN LIFE, and it is not the writer's fault. 
By this 'foolishness' some good may be accom- 

From an engineer's point of view humanity is 
apparently to be divided into three classes; (i) the 
intellectuals; (2) the rich; and (3) the poor. This 
division would seem to be contrary to all the rules 
of logic, but it corresponds to facts. Of course some 
individuals belong to two of the classes or even to 
all three of them, an after-war product, but essen- 
tially, they belong to the one class IN PROPORTION 
to the characteristic which is the most marked in 
their life; that is, in the sense of social classes 


( i ) The intellectuals are the men and women 


who possess the knowledge produced by the labor 
of by-gone generations but do not possess the ma- 
terial wealth thus produced. In mastering and using 
this inheritance of knowledge, they are exercising 
their time-binding energies and making the labor of 
the dead live in the present and for the future. 

(2) The rich are those who have possession and 
control of most of the material wealth produced by 
the toil of bygone generations wealth that is dead 
unless animated and transformed by the time-binding 
labor of the living. 

(3) The poor are those who have neither the 
knowledge possessed by the intellectuals nor the 
material wealth possessed by the rich and who, more- 
over, because nearly all their efforts, under present 
conditions, are limited to the struggle for mere ex- 
istence, have little or no opportunity to exercise their 
time-binding capacity. 

Let us now try to ascertain the role of the time- 
binding class of life as a whole. We have by 
necessity, to go back to the beginning back to the 
savage. We have seen what were the conditions 
of his work and progress ; we saw that for each suc- 
cessful achievement he often had to wrestle with a 
very large number of unsuccessful achievements, and 
his lifetime being so limited, the total of his success- 
ful achievements was very limited, so that he was 
able to give to his child only a few useful objects and 


the sum of his experience. Generally speaking, each 
successor did not start his life at the point where 
his father started; he started somewhere near where 
his father left off. His father gave, say, fifty years 
to discover two truths in nature and succeeded in 
making two or three simple objects; but the son does 
not need to give fifty years to discover and create the 
same achievements, and so he has time to achieve 
something new. He thus adds his own achievements 
to those of his father in tools and experience ; this is 
the mathematical equivalent of adding his parent's 
years of life to his own. His mother's work and 
experience are of course included the name father 
and son being only used representatively. 

This stupendous Fact is the definitive mark of 
humanity the power to roll up continuously the 
ever-increasing achievements of generation after 
generation endlessly. We have seen that this time- 
binding power is an exponential power or function 
of time. Time flows on, increasing in arithmetical 
progression, adding generation unto generation; 
but the results of human energies working in time 
do not go on arithmetically; they pile up or roll up 
more and more rapidly, augmenting in accordance 
with the law of a more and more rapidly increasing 
geometric progression. The typical term of the 
progression is PR T where PR denotes the ending 
progress made in the generation with which we 


agree to start our reckoning, R denotes the ratio 
increase, and T denotes the number of generations 
after the chosen " start." The quantity, PR T of 
progress made in the Tth generation contains T as 
an exponent, and so the quantity, varying as time 
T passes, is called an exponential function of the 

Nature is the source of all energy. Plants, the 
lowest form of life, have a definite role to perform 
in the economy of nature. Their function is the 
forming of albuminoids and other substances for 
higher purposes. All of their nitrates are high- 
explosives, or low explosives, but explosives any- 
way. They are powerful sources of some new 
energy. Animal life uses these "explosives" as food 
and is correspondingly more dynamic, but in animal 
life time does not play the role it plays in human 
life. Animals are limited by death permanently. If 
animals make any progress from generation to gene- 
ration, it is so small as to be negligible. A beaver, 
for example, is a remarkable builder of dams, but 
he does not progress in the way of inventions or fur- 
ther development. A beaver dam is always a beaver 

Finally humanity, the highest known class of 
life, has time-binding capacity as its characteristic, 
its discriminant, its peculiar and definitive mark. 
It is an unrealized fact that in this higher class of 


life, the law of organic growth develops into the law 
of energy-growth the mind the time-binding energy 
an increasing exponential function of time. That 
fact is of basic importance for the science and art 
of Human Engineering. In mechanics we have the 
well-known formula 


(i) ^ = Power. 

We have seen that, in accordance with the law of 
geometric progression, PR T represents the progress 
made the work done in the Tth generation (T 
being counted from some generation taken as start- 
ing point of reckoning) ; this progress, achievement, 
or work, being done in one generation, we have by (i) 

Work=PR T 

(2) - = rower, 
Time = i 

that is, PR T = Power; this means that the number 
PR T , which measures the work done in a given 
generation, is also the measure of the power that 
does the work. Now, the total work, W y done in 
the T generations is 

(3) !T 
that is, 

(4) W= (PR T -P) 


It should be noticed that by (2) this expression for 
W may also be regarded as the sum of T different 
powers PR, PR 2 , etc., each working during one and 
only one generation; if we divided this sum by T, 
the quotient would be a power that would have to 
act through T generations to produce W. The 
reader should not fail to notice very carefully that 
the expression (4) for W is an expression for the 
total progress made the total work done the 
total wealth produced in the course of T genera- 
tions and he should especially note how the expres- 
sion involves the exponential function of time (T), 
namely PR T . 

The formula makes mathematically evident the 
time-binding capacity characteristic of the human 
class of life. Properly understood, wealth consists 
of the fruits or products of this time-binding capac- 
ity of man. Animals do not produce wealth; it is 
produced by Man and only Man. The foregoing 
basic formulation should lead to further similar 
developments throwing much light upon the process 
of civilization and serving to eliminate " private 
opinion " from the conduct of human affairs. (In 
this writing it is not important to look deeper into 
these proposed series. The fact remains that P, as 
well as jR, are peculiarly increasing series of a geo- 
metrical character the precise form will be de- 
veloped in another writing.) 


Human achievements and progress, because cumu- 
lative, are knocking out the barriers of time. This 
fact is the vital and dynamic difference between ani- 
mal life and human life. As plants gather in and 
store up solar energy into sheaves for the use and 
growth of animal and man so humans are gather- 
ing and binding the knowledge of past centuries into 
sheaves for the use and development of generations 
yet unborn. 

We have seen that the term wealth, rightly under- 
stood, means the fruit of the time-binding work of 
humanity. Wealth is of two kinds: one is material; 
the other is knowledge. Both kinds have use-value. 
The first kind perishes the commodities composing 
it deteriorate and become useless. The other is per- 
manent in character; it is imperishable; it may be lost 
or forgotten but it does not wear out. 

The one is limited in time ; the other, unlimited in 
time; the former I call POTENTIAL USE-VALUE; the 
latter, KINETIC USE-VALUE. Analysis will justify the ' 
names. The energy of a body which is due to its 
position, is called potential energy. The energy of 
a body which is due to its motion, is called kinetic 
energy. Here the material use-value has value 
through its position, shape and so forth; it is immo- 
bile if not used, and has not the capacity to progress. 
Mental use-values are not static but permanently 
dynamic; one thought, one discovery, is the impulse 


to others ; they follow the law of an increasing poten- 
tial function of time. (See app. II.) This is why 
these names correspond to the two names of the two 
mentioned classes of energy. 

Here I must return to the current conceptions of 
wealth and capital, before cited. "Wealth," we are 
told, "is any useful or agreeable thing which pos- 
sesses exchangeable value." And we are told that 
"Capital is that part of wealth which is devoted to 
obtaining further wealth." I have said that such 
conceptions such definitions of wealth and capital 
are childish they belong to the period of humanity's 
childhood. That they are indeed childish concep- 
tions the reader can not fail to see if he will reflect 
upon them and especially if he will compare them 
with the scientific conception according to which 
wealth consists of those things whether they be 
material commodities or forms of knowledge and 
understanding that have been produced by the 
time-binding energies of humanity, and according to 
which nearly all the wealth of the world at any given 
time is the accumulated fruit of the toil of past gen- 
erations the living work of the dead. It seems 
unnecessary to warn the reader against confusing 
the "making" of money by hook or crook, by trick 
or trade, with the creating of wealth, by the product 
of labor. In calling the old conceptions childish, I 
do not mean that they contain no element of truth 


whatever; I mean that they are shallow, scientifically 
or spiritually meagre, narrow in their vision, wrong 
in their accent; I especially mean that they are dumb, 
bcause they are blind, regarding the central matter 
that wealth is the natural offspring of Time and 
Human Toil. The old conceptions do indeed imply 
that wealth and capital involve both potential and 
kinetic use-values, and in so far they are right. But 
how do such use-values arise? 

The potential use-values in wealth are created by 
human work operating in time upon raw material 
given by nature. The use-values are produced by 
time-taking transformations of the raw materials; 
these transformations are wrought by human brain 
labor and human muscular labor directed by the 
human brain acting in time. The kinetic use-values 
of wealth are also created by human toil mainly by 
the intellectual labor of observation, experimenta- 
tion, imagination, deduction and invention, all con- 
suming the precious time of short human lives. It 
is obvious that in the creation of use-values whether 
potential or kinetic, the element of time enters as an 
absolutely essential factor. The fundamental im- 
portance of time as a factor in the production of 
wealth the fact that wealth and the use-values of 
wealth are literally the natural offspring of the 
spiritual union of time with toil has been completely 
overlooked, not only by the economics, but by the 


ethics, the jurisprudence and the other branches of 
speculative reasoning, throughout the long period of 
humanity's childhood. In the course of the ages there 
has indeed been much "talk" about time, but there 
has been no recognition of the basic significance of 
time as essential in the conception and in the very 
constitution of human values. 

It is often said that "Time is Money"; the state- 
ment is often false; but the proposition that Money 
is Time is always true. It is always true in the pro- 
found sense that Money is the measure and symbol 
of Wealth the product of Time and Toil the 
crystallization of the time-binding human capacity. 



Nature's laws are supreme; we cannot change 
them ; we can deviate from them for a while, but the 
end is evil. That is the lesson we must learn from 
the history of Humanity's childhood. False con- 
ceptions of Man ignorance of the laws of human 
nature have given us unscientific economies, un- 
scientific ethics, unscientific law, unscientific politics, 
unscientific government. These have made human 
history the history of social cataclysms insurrec- 
tions, wars, revolutions sad tokens not so much of 
human lust as of human ignorance of the laws of 


human nature. There is but one remedy, one hope 
a science and art of Human Engineering based 
upon the just conception of humanity as the time- 
binding class of life and conforming to the laws of 
nature including the laws of human nature. 



immortal work done by Descartes, Newton 
and Leibnitz was to discover powerful methods 
for mathematics the only fit language for express- 
ing the laws of nature. 

Human Engineering will be the science by which 
the great social problems will be solved. For the 
first time since the first day of man, humanity will 
really understand its own nature and status; and 
will learn to direct scientifically the living and the 
non-living forces for construction, avoiding unneces- 
sary destruction and waste. 

It may seem strange but it is true that the time- 
binding exponential powers, called humans, do not 
die their bodies die but their achievements live for- 
ever a permanent source of power. All of our 
precious possessions science, acquired by experi- 
ence, accumulated wealth in all fields of life are 
kinetic and potential use-values created and left by 
by-gone generations; they are humanity's treasures 
produced mainly in the past, and conserved for our 
use, by that peculiar function or power of man for 
the binding of time. That the natural trend of life 



and the progress of the development of this treasury 
is so often checked, turned from its natural course, 
or set back, is due to ignorance of human nature, to 
metaphysical speculation and sophistry. Those who, 
with or without intention, keep the rate of humanity's 
mental advancement down to that of an arithmetic 
progression are the real enemies of society; for they 
keep the life-regulating "sciences" and institutions 
far behind the gallop of life itself. The consequence 
is periodic social violence wars and revolutions. 

Let us carry the analysis of potential and kinetic 
use-values a little further. All potential use-values 
left to us by the dead are temporal and differ in 
utility. Many potential use-values are found in 
museums and have very limited value to-day in prac- 
tical life. On the other hand some roads or water- 
ways built by the ancients have use-value to-day; and 
an almost endless list of modern potential use-values 
have or will have use-values for a long time to come, 
such as buildings, improved lands, railroad tracks, 
certain machines or tools; the use-value of some such 
items of material wealth will last for more than one 
generation. Kinetic use-values are permanent in 
their character, for, though they may become anti- 
quated, they yet serve as the foundation for the de- 
velopments that supersede them, and so they continue 
to live in that to which they lead. 

I would draw attention at this point to one of the 


most important kinetic and potential use-values pro- 
duced by humanity the invention of the steam 
engine. Through this invention, humanity has been 
able to avail itself, not only of the living fruits of 
dead men's toil, but also of the inconceivably vast 
amounts of solar energy and time bound up in the 
growth of vegetable life and conserved for use in 
the form of coal and other fuels of vegetable origin. 
This invention has revolutionized our life in count- 
less directions. To be brief, I will analyse only the 
most salient effects. Human Engineering has never 
existed except in the most embryonic form. In 
remote antiquity the conception and knowledge of 
natural law was wholly absent or exceedingly vague. 
Before the invention of the steam engine, people 
depended mainly upon human powers that is, upon 
"living powers" the powers of living men, and the 
living fruits of the labor of the dead. Even then 
there were manifold complications. 

The invention of the steam engine released for 
human use a new power of tremendous magnitude 
the stored-up power of solar energy and ages of 
time. But we must not fail to note carefully that we 
to-day are enabled to use this immense new power 
of bound-up solar energy and time by a human inven- 
tion, a product of the dead. 

The full significance of the last statement requires 
reflection. The now dead inventor of the steam 


engine could not have produced his ingenious inven- 
tion except by using the living powers of other dead 
men except by using the material and spiritual or 
mental wealth created by those who had gone before. 
In the inventor's intellectual equipment there was 
actively present the kinetic use-value of "bound-up- 
time," enabling him to discover the laws of heat, 
water, and steam; and he employed both the poten- 
tial and kinetic use-values of mechanical instruments, 
methods of work, and scientific knowledge of his 
time and generation use-values of wealth created 
by the genius and toil of by-gone generations. This 
invention was not produced, let us say 6000 years 
ago, because civilization was not then sufficiently ad- 
vanced: mathematically considered, the production 
of this great use-value had to await all the accumu- 
lated work of six thousand years of human ingenuity 
and human labor. So, if we choose, the steam engine 
may be considered a kinetic use-value in which the 
factor of time is equal to something like 6000 years, 
or let us say roughly 200 generations. 

It is obvious that, in one life time, even a genius 
of the highest order, could not, in aboriginal condi- 
tions, have invented and built a steam engine, when 
everything, even iron, was unknown. Of course if 
the same inventor could have had a life of several 
thousands of years and could have consecutively fol- 
lowed up all the processes, unhampered by the preju- 


dices of those days, and been able to make all of 
these inventions by himself, he would represent in 
himself all the progress of civilization. 

By this illustration we see the profound meaning 
of the words the living powers of the dead ; we see 
the grave importance in human life of the factor 
TIME ; we behold the significance of the time-binding 
capacity of man. The steam engine is to be seen 
anew, as in the main the accumulated production of 
dead-men's work. The life of one generation is 
short, and were it not for our human capacity to 
inherit the material and spiritual fruit of dead men's 
toil, to augment it a little in the brief span of our 
own lives, and to transmit it to posterity, the process 
of civilization would not be possible and our present 
estate would be that of aboriginal man. Civilization 
is a creature, its creator is the time-binding power 
of man. Animals have it not, because they belong 
to a lower type or dimension of life. 

Sophistry avails nothing here; a child, left in the 
woods, would be and remain a savage, matching his 
wits with gorillas. He becomes a civilized man only 
by the accumulation of, and acquaintance with dead 
men's work; for then and only then can he start 
where the preceding generation left off. This 
capacity is peculiar to men; the fact can not be re- 
peated too often. 

It is untrue to say that A started his life aided 


exclusively by the achievements of (say) his father, 
for his father's achievements depended on the 
achievements of his immediate predecessors; and so 
on all the way back through the life of humanity. 
This fact, of supreme ethical importance, applies to 
all of us; none of us may speak or act as if the 
material or spiritual wealth we have were produced 
by us ; for, if we be not stupid, we must see that what 
we call our wealth, our civilization, everything we 
use or enjoy, is in the main the product of the labor 
of men now dead, some of them slaves, some of them 
"owners" of slaves. The metal spoon or the knife 
which we use daily is a product of the work of many 
generations, including those who discovered the 
metal and the use of it, and the utility of the spoon. 

And here arises a most important question: Since 
the wealth of the world is in the main the free gift 
of the past the fruit of the labor of the dead 
to whom does it of right belong? The question can 
not be evaded. Is the existing monopoly of the great 
inherited treasures produced by dead men's toil a 
normal and natural evolution? 

Or is it an artificial status imposed by the few 
upon the many? Such is the crux of the modern 

It is generally known that the invention of the 
steam engine and other combustion engines which re- 
lease sun-power for mechanical use, has revolution- 


ized the economic system ; for the building of engines 
in the scale of modern needs, it is necessary to con- 
centrate a great number of living men in one place, 
to build factories, to set up machines used in pro- 
ducing the engines, and all this requires the use of 
vast amounts of money. That is why this era is 
called the capitalistic era. But it is necessary to stop 
here and analyse the factors of value in the engine 
to be made and in the money used for the purpose of 
making use of the stored-up energies of the sun. We 
have found that the major part of the engine and all 
factors connected with its production are the com- 
bined power of dead men's labor. We have found 
that wealth or capital and its symbol, money, are 
also, in the main, the bound-up power of dead men's 
labor; so that the only way to obtain the benefit in the 
release of sun-power, is by using the product of the 
toil of the dead. It is further obvious that only the 
men or organizations that are able to concentrate the 
largest amounts of money, representing the work of 
the dead, can have the fullest use of the stored-up 
energies of time and the ancient sun. Thus the 
monopoly of the stored-up energies of the sun arises 
from monopolizing the accumulated fruits of dead 
men's toil. These problems will, in the future, be 
the concern of the science and art of Human Engi- 

Let us glance briefly at the problems from another 


angle. The power developed in the combustion of 
one pound of coal is theoretically equal to 1 1,580,000 
foot pounds. But by our imperfect methods of utili- 
zation, not more than 1,500,000 foot pounds are 
made available. This is about the amount of 
physical power exerted by a man of ordinary 
strength during a day's work. Hence 300 pounds 
of coal will represent the labor of a man for a 
year. The current production of coal in the world 
is about 500,000,000 tons (1906). If we suppose 
that only half of this coal goes for mechanical use, 
this will give us approximately the number as 1,600,- 
000,000 man-powers that are producers but not con- 

Let us take a still broader view of resources; we 
have approximately 1,600,000,000 living human 
beings (all censuses available between 1902 and 
1906) ; a wealth of approximately $357,000,000,- 
ooo (Social Progress, 1906, page 221) which in our 
analysis is dead men's work; and sun-power equal, 
in work, to the work of our whole living population, 
or equal to 1,600,000,000 sun man-powers. Taking, 
for simplicity's sake, $35.70 as the average living ex- 
penses per annum for each one of the world's pop- 
ulation, we will have: 

(1) 1,600,000,000 living men. 

(2) 10,000,000,000 living man-powers of the 


(3) 1,600,000,000 sun man-powers. 

Such classification needs a reflection : man is intrin- 
sically an increasing exponential power and always 
produces two use-values the potential and the 
kinetic. All living men have in some degree this type 
of power; they are able to direct and use basic 

So we see that this world is really populated to- 
day by three different populations, all of them 
dynamic and active: to wit, 1,600,000,000 living 
men; 10,000,000,000 living man-powers of the dead; 
1,600,000,000 sun man-powers. 

Thus it is obvious beyond any argument, that this 
additional producing but not consuming population, 
has been produced mainly by the work of all our past 
generations. It is said "mainly" because, if we were 
the first generation, we would be just aboriginal sav- 
ages having nothing and progressing very slowly. 
The reason why we progress very rapidly, in this 
stage of civilization, is explained very clearly by the 
mathematical law of a geometrical progression, with 
an ever increasing number of terms, the magnitude 
of the terms increasing more rapidly all the time.* 

* Of course, the geometric progression does not represent 
precisely the law of human progression; it is here employed 
because it is familiar and serves, better perhaps than any other 
simple mathematical means, to show roughly how human prog- 
ress goes on. The essential elements of a progression are the 
first term P and the ratio R and the number of the terms T; 
in the human progression PR 1 ' PR*, PR*, . . . PR T , P is the 


This fact is the reason why the old unscientific and 
artificial social system requires and must undergo 
profound transformation. Human progress, in 
many directions, is so far advanced that social insti- 
tutions can not much longer continue to lag so far 
behind. Static ethics, static jurisprudence, static 
economics, and the rest must become dynamic; if 
they do not continue to progress peacefully in accord- 
ance with the law of the progress of science, they 
will be forced by violent readjustments, recurring 
with ever increasing frequency. 

Here we have a problem of very high importance 
and enormous magnitude. To serve 1,600,000,000 
living men, we have 11,600,000,000 dead man- 
powers and all the sun man-powers SEVEN SER- 

starting status of the first generation, R is the peculiar capacity 
of humans to bind time and is a free gift and law of nature, 
which it would be folly not to recognize and accept as such, 
T is time, or number of generations. It is obvious that the 
magnitude, PR T , is entirely dependent on the magnitudes of PR, 
and T. The existence of R and T is independent of humans, 
R being a law of nature, T a gift of nature, P the starting status 
of the initial generation. With P = OorR =0 THERE WOULD 
BE NO PROGRESS or progression at all; each term in the case 
of human progression is mainly dependent upon the time and 
the work done by the dead. The existence of R and T is entirely 
beyond human control. Humans can control only the MAGNI- 
TUDE of those elements by education. Here comes the tre- 
mendous responsibility of education. It is not necessary to 
use much imagination to se e that if humanity had always been 
rightly educated, science would have long ago discovered the 
natural forces and laws essential to human welfare, and human 
misery would to-day be relatively small. 


included. It looks like the millennium. It would be so 
if we but used all this power in a constructive way, 
eliminating waste and controversy and all those fac- 
tors which hamper production and progress. The 
present economic system does not realize even the 
beginning of the magnitude of this truth and the 
tremendous results which are to be achieved through 
the adjustment of it. The problem will be solved by 
Human Engineering, for this will establish the right 
understanding of values and will show how to man- 
age world problems scientifically ; it will give a scien- 
tific foundation to Political Economy and transform 
so-called "scientific shop management" into genuine 
''scientific world management." * 

There is a chasm between "Capital" and "Labor," 
but nature does not know "Capital" or "Labor" at all. 
Nature knows only matter, energy, "space," "time," 
potential and kinetic use-values, forces in all their 
direct and indirect expression, the energies of living 
men, living powers of dead men, and the bound-up 
powers of Time and the ancient Sun. Nature made 
man an increasing exponential function of time, a 
time-binder, a power able to transform and direct 
basic powers. Sometimes we hypocritically like to 
delude ourselves, if our delusions are agreeable 
and profitable. We call human work "manual 
labor" and we pretend that we need the laborer for 
* See Appendix III. 


his muscular service, but when we thus speak, we are 
thoughtless, stupid, or insincere. What we look for 
in the worker is his control of his muscles; mechan- 
ical work is or can be replaced almost entirely by 
machinery. What we will never be able to replace 
by machinery is a Man, because man belongs to the 
level of a dimension above machinery. Engine- 
power, sun man-power, and capital mainly the 
work of the dead are inanimate ; they become pro- 
ductive only when quickened by the time-binding 
energies of living men and women. Then only are 
the results proportional to the ever growing magni- 
tude of exponential power. In nature's economy the 
time-binders are the intelligent forces. There is none 
else known to us, and from the engineer's point of 
view, Edison and the simplest laborer, Smith or 
Jones, are basically the same; their powers or capac- 
ities are exponential, and, though differing in degree, 
are the same in kind. This may seem optimistic but 
all engineers are optimists. They deal only with fact 
and truth. If they make mistakes, if their bridges 
break down, then, no matter how clever their sophis- 
try, they are adjudged criminal. Like severity must 
be made the rule and practice toward all those who 
control the institutions and great affairs of human 
society. Periodical break-downs must be prevented. 
The engineers of human society must be held respon- 
sible, as the bridge engineer is held to-day. 


Things are often simpler than they appear at the 
first glance. There may be fire and plenty of coal in 
a stove, yet no heat ; the fire does not burn well ; an 
engineer will remove the natural causes of obstruc- 
tion of the natural process; even such a simple thing 
as the removal of ashes may solve the problem. It 
seems simple enough. The truth is often clear and 
simple, if only it be not obscured and complicated by 

"Capitalistic" reasoning and "Socialistic" reason- 
ing Nature does not know such things. Nature has 
only one "reasoning" in all its functions. Our falsi- 
fying of nature's laws makes the controversy. 
Socialism exists as an ism because Capitalism exists 
as an ism; the clash is only an expression of the 
eternal law of action and reaction. 

We are living in a world of wealth, a world en- 
riched by many generations of dead men's toil; be- 
tween the lust of the one to keep and the lust of 
others to get, there is little to choose; such conten- 
tions of lust against lust are sub-human animalistic; 
such ethics is zoological ethics the righteousness of 
tooth and claw; below the human dimensions of 
life, utterly unworthy of the creative energy the 
time-binding capacity of humanity. Socialism 
feels keenly and sees dimly that human affairs are 
not conducted in conformity with natural laws. 
Capitalism neither sees it nor keenly feels it. Neither 


the one nor the other stops to investigate natural 
laws nature's laws laws of human nature scien- 
tifically. They both of them use the same specula- 
tive methods in their arguments, and there can be 
no issue. Against one old-fashioned, speculative 
argument, there is always a speculative answer. They 
both speak about the truth, but their methods can 
not find the truth nor their language express it. They 
speak of "justice," "right" and so forth, not know- 
ing that their conceptions of those terms are based 
on a wrong understanding of values. There is one 
and but one remedy, and that remedy consists in 
applying scientific method to the study of the subject. 
Sound reasoning, once introduced, will overrun 
humanity as the fields turn green in the spring; 
it will eliminate the waste of energy in contro- 
versies; it will attract all forces toward construc- 
tion and the exploitation of nature for the common 

There are capitalists and capitalists; there are 
socialists and socialists. Among the capitalists there 
are those who want wealth mainly the fruit of dead 
men's toil for themselves. Among the socialists 
there are those the orthodox socialists who seek 
to disperse it. The former do not perceive that 
the product of the labor of the dead is itself dead 
if not quickened by the energies of living men. The 
orthodox socialists do not perceive the tremendous 


benefits that accrue to mankind from the accumula- 
tion of wealth, if rightly used. 

Whether we be capitalists or socialists or neither, 
we must learn that to prey upon the treasury left 
by the dead is to live, not the life of a human being, 
but that of a ghoul. Legalistic title documentary 
ownership does not alter the fact. Neither does 
lust for the same. 

When we have acquired the just conception of 
what a human being is we shall get away from the 
Roman conception according to which a human being 
is instrumentum vocale; an animal, instrumentum 
semivocale: and a tool, instrumentum mutum. To 
regard human beings as tools as instruments for 
the use of other human beings is not only unscientific 
but it is repugnant, stupid and short sighted. Tools 
are made by man but have not the autonomy of their 
maker they have not man's time-binding capacity 
for initiation, for self-direction, and self-improve- 
ment. In their own nature, tools, instruments, ma- 
chines belong to a dimension far lower than that of 

Talk of dimensions or dimensionality is by no 
means theoretical rubbish. The right understanding 
of dimensions is of life-and-death importance in prac- 
tical life. The intermixing of dimensions leads to 
wrong conclusions in our thought and wrong conclu- 
sions lead to disasters. 


Consider the classes of life as representing three 
dimensions (as explained in an earlier chapter), then 
human production belongs essentially to the human 
or as I call it the third dimension. With the base 
of (say) 5, we produce in the third dimension a 
result of 125 units, and so when humans are paid 
but 25 units in accordance with the standards of the 
second dimension (that of animals), humanity is 
deprived of the benefit of 100 units of produced 
wealth. That is an illustration of what a part dimen- 
sions play in practical life. The reflective reader 
may analyse for himself what effect these same rules 
would have, if expressed and applied in the human 
"time-binding" dimension, time being the supreme 
test. The following table gives the visual shock : 

1st Dimension 2nd Dimension 3rd Dimension 
5 25 125 

IO 100 I,OOO 

IOO IO,OOO 1,000,000 

I,OOO 1,000,000 1,000,000,000 

This explains why the intermixing of dimensions 
is the source of tremendous evil. 

Who can now assert that the problem of dimen- 
sions is one only of theory? It is not even a ques- 
tion of limitation of mind, but it becomes a 
question of limitation of eyesight, not to be able to 
see the overwhelming differences between the laws 
of development of the first, second, and the third 


Dollars, or pounds sterling, or other units of 
money follow the same rules: the strength and in 
fact the source of power of modern capitalism, is 
found in just this difference in dimensions in the 
difference between what is given and what is taken, 
in the difference between what is earned and what is 
"made." The problem of dimensions is, therefore, 
a key which unlocks the secrets of the power of capi- 
talism and opens the door to a new civilization where 
the understanding of dimensions will establish order 
out of the chaos. 

We have seen that kinetic and potential use-values, 
produced mainly by the dead, are bound up in wealth, 
which is measured and symbolized by money. This 
being true, it is obvious that money is a measure and 
symbol of power, of work done, of bound-up time. 

The space-binding animal standard of misciviliza- 
tion has brought us to an impasse a blind alley 
for the simple physical reason that there is no more 
space to "bind." Practically all the habitable lands, 
and practically all the natural resources, are already 
divided among private legalistic owners. What hope 
is there for the ever increasing population? 

But we have these 1,600,000,000 living men; 
10,000,000,000 living man-powers of the dead; and 
1,600,000,000 sun man-powers: that is indeed a tre- 
mendous power to PRODUCE WEALTH FOR ALL, IF 
WISELY DIRECTED, but to-day it is ignorantly and 


shamefully misdirected, because human beings are not 
treated in accordance with their nature as the time- 
binding class of life. 

Much more is to be gained in exploiting nature 
aimfully, all the time, with a full mobilization of our 
living, dead, and sun-powers, than by exploiting man 
all the time and nature occasionally. Selfishness and 
ignorance is it these that prevent full mobilization 
of the producing powers of the world? 

Such as contribute most to human progress and 
human enlightenment men like Gutenberg, Coper- 
nicus, Newton, Leibnitz, Watts, Franklin, Mende- 
leieff, Pasteur, Sklodowska-Curie, Edison, Steinmetz, 
Loeb, Dewey, Keyser, Whitehead, Russell, Poincare, 
William Benjamin Smith, Gibbs, Einstein, and many 
others consume no more bread than the simplest 
of their fellow mortals. Indeed such men are often 
in want. How many a genius has perished inarticu- 
late because unable to stand the strain of social con- 
ditions where animal standards prevail and "survival 
of the fittest" means, not survival of the "fittest in 
time-binding capacity," but survival of the strongest 
in ruthlessness and guile in space-binding compe- 
tition ! 

Wealth is produced by those who work with hand 
or brain and by no others. The great mass of the 
wealth of the world has been thus produced by gen- 
erations that have gone. We know that the greatest 


wealth producers immeasurably the greatest have 
been and are scientific men, discoverers and in- 
ventors. If an invention, in the course of a few 
years after it is made, must become public property, 
then the wealth produced by the use of the inven- 
tion should also become public property in the course 
of a like period of years after it is thus produced. 
Against this proposition no sophistry can avail. 

One of the greatest powers of modern times is 
the Press; it commands the resources of space and 
time; it affects in a thousand subtle ways the form 
of our thoughts. It controls the exchange of news 
throughout the world. Unfortunately the press is 
often controlled by exploiters of the "living powers 
of the dead," and so what is presented as news is 
frequently so limited, colored and distorted by selfish 
interests as to be falsehood in the guise of truth. 
Honest, independent papers are frequently starved 
by selfish conspirators and forced to close down. 
Thus the press, which is itself the product in the 
main of dead men's toil, is made a means for the 
deception and exploitation of the living. Indeed the 
bitter words of Voltaire seem to be too true : "Since 
God created man in his own image, how often has 
man endeavored to render similar service to God." 
Those who want to use such "God-like" powers to 
rule the world are modern Neros, who in their 
wickedness and folly fancy themselves divine. To 


deceive, and through deception, to exploit, rob and 
subjugate living men and women, and to do it by 
prostituting the living powers created by the dead, 
is the work, I will not say of men, but of mad men, 
greedy, ignorant and blind. What is the remedy? 
Revolution? Revolution is also mad. The only 
remedy is enlightenment knowledge, knowledge of 
nature, knowledge of human nature, scientific educa- 
tion, science applied to all the affairs of man the 
science and art of Human Engineering. 



TTUMANITY is a dynamic affair, nay, the most 
dynamic known, because it is able to transform 
and direct basic powers. Where power is produced 
there must be an issue for it. Power must perforce 
express itself in some form. Electricity produced in 
the skies comes down in an often disastrous manner. 
Electricity, produced aimfully, runs our railroads; 
just so the enormous power produced by humanity 
must be used aimfully, in a constructive way or it 
will burst into insurrections, revolutions and wars. 

Hitherto we have been guided by those bottomless 
sciences having only mythological ideas of power 
by ideas moulded by personal ambitions, personal 
interests, or downright ignorance. Periodically we 
have had all the evils of the lack of a common aim 
and scientific guidance. Power has been held by the 
"God-given" or the "cleverest"; seldom has the 
power been given to the "fittest" in the sense of the 
most capable "to do." Those who speak of the 
"survival of the fittest," as in the Darwinian theory 
of animals, bark an animal language. This rule, 
being natural only in the life of plants and animals 



and appropriate only to the lower forms of physical 
life, cannot, except with profound change of mean- 
ing, be applied to the time-binding class of life, with- 
out disaster. 

The modern vast accumulation of wealth for pri- 
vate purposes, justifies itself by using the argument 
of the "survival of the fittest." Very well, where 
there is a "survival," there must be victims; where 
there are victims, there has been fighting. Is this 
what the users of this argument mean? Like the 
Kaiser, they talk peace and make war. This method 
of doing things is not in any way new. The world 
has been accustomed to it for a very long while. 

Personally I believe that most of the masters of 
speculative semi-sciences, such as economics, law, 
ethics, politics and government are honest in their 
beliefs and speculations. Simply the right man be- 
lieves in the wrong thing; if shown the right way 
out of the mess he will cease to hamper progress; he 
will be of the greatest value to the new world built 
by Human Engineers, where human capacities, ex- 
ponential functions of time, will operate naturally; 
where economy, law, ethics, politics and government 
will be dynamic, not static. There is a world of dif- 
ference between these two words. 

The immediate object of this writing is to show 
the way to directing the time-binding powers of man- 
kind for the benefit of all. Human technology, as an 


art and science, does not yet exist; some basic prin- 
ciples were required as a foundation for such a 
science. Especially was it necessary to establish a 
human standard, and thus make it certain and clear 
that "space-binders" the members of the animal 
world are "outside of the human law" outside 
the natural laws for the human class of life. 

Present civilization is a very complicated affair; 
although many of our social problems are very badly 
managed, sudden changes could not be made without 
endangering the welfare and life of all classes of 
society. In the meantime, changes must be made 
because the world can not proceed much longer under 
pre-war conditions ; they have been too well exposed 
by facts for humanity to allow itself to be blindly 
led again. 

In the World War humanity passed through a 
tremendous trial and for those years was under the 
strain of an extensive mobilization campaign. The 
necessity of increasing power was manifest; the im- 
portance of a common base or aim became equally 
manifest. In this case the base, the common aim, 
was found in "war patriotism." This common base 
enabled all the states to add up individual powers 
and build maximum efficiency into a collective 
power. This expression is used, not only as a social 
truth, but as a known mathematical truth. Those 
high ideals, which were given "Urbi et orbi" in thou* 


sands of speeches and in millions of propaganda 
papers, had a much greater educational importance 
and influence than most people are aware of. People 
have been awakened and have acquired the taste for 
those higher purposes which in the past were avail- 
able only for the few. 

Many old worn-out idols, ideas and ideals have 
fallen; but what is going to take their place? We 
witness an unrest which will not be eliminated until 
something essential is done to adjust it. Calm often 
betokens a coming storm. The coming storm is not 
the work of any "bad man," but it is the inevitable 
consequence of a "bad system." It is dangerous 
to hide our heads in the sand, like an ostrich, and 
fancy we are safe. 

"Survival of the fittest" in the commonly used ani- 
mal sense is not a theory or principle for a "time- 
binding" being. This theory is only for the physical 
bodies of animals; its effect upon humanity is sin- 
ister and degrading (see App. II). We see the prin- 
ciple at work all about us in criminal exploitation and 
profiteering. As a matter of fact, the ages-long ap- 
plication of this animal principle to human affairs 
has degraded the whole human morale in an incon- 
ceivably far-reaching way. Personal greed and sel- 
fishness are brazenly owned as principles of conduct. 
We shrug our shoulders in acquiescence and proclaim 
greed and selfishness to be the very core of human 


nature, take it all for granted, and let it pass at that. 
We have gone so far in our degradation that the 
prophet of capitalistic principles, Adam Smith, in his 
famous Wealth of Nations, arrives at the laws of 
wealth, not from the phenomena of wealth nor from 
statistical statements, but from the phenomena of 
selfishness a fact which shows how far-reaching in 
its dire influence upon all humanity is the theory that 
human beings are "animals." Of course the effect 
is very disastrous. The preceding chapters have 
shown that the theory is false; it is false, not only 
because of its unhappy effects, but it belies the char- 
acteristic nature of man. Human nature, this time- 
binding power, not only has the peculiar capacity 
for perpetual progress, but it has, over and above 
all animal propensities, certain qualities constituting 
it a distinctive dimension or type of life. Not only 
our whole collective life proves a love for higher 
ideals, but even our dead give us the rich heritage, 
material and spiritual, of all their toils. There is 
nothing mystical about it; to call SUCH a class a 
naturally selfish class is not only nonsensical but 

This capacity for higher ideals does not originate 
in some "jwprniatural" outside factor; it is not of 
extraneous origin, it is the expression of the time- 
binding element which we inherently possess, inde- 
pendently of our "will" ; it is an inborn capacity a 


gift of nature. We simply are made this way and 
not in any other. There is indeed a fine sense in 
which we can, if we choose, apply the expression 
survival of the fittest to the activity of the time- 
binding energies of man. Having the peculiar ca- 
pacity to survive in our deeds, we have an inclina- 
tion to use it and we survive in the deeds of our 
creation; and so there is brought about the "survival 
in time" of higher and higher ideals. The moment 
we consider Man in his proper dimension active 
in TIME these things become simple, stupendous, 
and beautiful. 

"Note the radical character of the transformation to be 
effected. The world shall no longer be beheld as an alien 
thing, beheld by eyes that are not its own. Conception of 
the whole and by the whole shall embrace us as part, really, 
literally, consciously, as the latest term, it may be, of an 
advancing sequence of developments, as occupying the high- 
est rank perhaps in the ever-ascending hierarchy of being, 
but, at all events, as emerged and still emerging natura 
naturata from some propensive source within. I grant that 
the change in point of view is hard to make old habits, 
like walls of rock, tending to confine the tides of conscious- 
ness within their accustomed channels but it can be made 
and, by assiduous effort, in the course of time, maintained. 
Suppose it done. By that reunion, the whole regains, while 
the part retains, the consciousness the latter purloined. . . . 
In the whole universe of events, none is more wonderful 
than the birth of wonder, none more curious than the 
nascence of curiosity itself, nothing to compare with the 
dawning of consciousness in the ancient dark and the gradual 


extension of psychic life and illumination throughout a cos- 
mos that before had only been. An eternity of blindly act- 
ing, transforming, unconscious existence, assuming at length, 
through the birth of sense and intellect, without loss or break 
of continuity, the abiding form of fleeting time." (C. J. 
Keyser, k>c. cit.) 

It must be emphasized that the development of 
higher ideals is due to the natural capacity of hu- 
manity; the impulse is simply time-binding impulse. 
As we have seen, by analysing the functions of the 
different classes of life, every class of life has an 
impulse to exercise its peculiar capacity or function. 
Nitrogen resists compound combinations and if 
found in such combinations it breaks away as quickly 
as ever it can. Birds have wings they fly. Animals 
have feet they run. Man has the capacity of time- 
binding he binds time. It does not matter whether 
we understand the very "essence" of the phenomenon 
or not, any more than we understand the "essence" 
of electricity or any other "essence." Life shows 
that man has time-binding capacity as a natural gift 
and is naturally impelled to use it. One of the best 
examples is procreation. Conception is a com- 
pletely incomprehensible phenomenon in its "es- 
sence," nevertheless, having the capacity to procreate 
we use it without bothering about its "essence." 
Indeed neither life nor science bothers about "es- 
sences" they leave "essences" to metaphysics, 
which is neither life nor science. It is sufficient for 


our purpose that idealization is in fact a natural 
process of time-binding human energy. And how- 
ever imperfect ethics has been owing to the preva- 
lence of animal standards, such merits as our ethics 
has had witness to the natural presence of ^idealiza- 
tion" in time-binding human life. 

"It is thus evident that ideals are not things to gush over 
or to sigh and sentimentalize about ; they are not what would 
be left if that which is hard in reality were taken away; 
ideals are themselves the very flint of reality, beautiful no 
doubt and precious, without which there would be neither 
dignity nor hope nor light ; but their aspect is not sentimental 
and soft ; it is hard, cold, intellectual, logical, austere. Ideali- 
zation consists in the conception or the intuition of ideals and 
in the pursuit of them. And ideals, I have said, are of two 
kinds. Let us make the distinction clearer. Every sort of 
human activity shoeing horses, abdominal surgery, or paint- 
ing profiles admits of a peculiar type of excellence. No sort 
of activity can escape from its own type but within its type 
it admits of indefinite improvement. For each type there is 
an ideal a dream of perfection an unattainable limit of 
an endless sequence of potential ameliorations within the type 
and on its level. The dreams of such unattainable perfec- 
tions are as countless as the types of excellence to which they 
respectively belong and they together constitute the familiar 
world of our human ideals. To share in it to feel the lure 
of perfection in one or more types of excellence, however 
lowly is to be human; not to feel it is to be sub-human. 
But this common kind of idealization, though it is very im- 
portant and very precious, does not produce the great events 
in the life of mankind. These are produced by the kind of 
idealization that corresponds to what we have called in the 
mathematical prototype, limit-begotten generalization a kind 


of idealization that is peculiar to creative genius and that, 
not content to pursue ideals within established types of excel- 
lences, creates new types thereof in science, in art, in phil- 
osophy, in letters, in ethics, in education, in social order, in 
all the fields and forms of the spiritual life of man." (Quoted 
from the manuscript of the forthcoming book, Mathematical 
Philosophy, by Cassius J. Keyser.) 

"Survival of the fittest" has a different form for 
different classes of life. Applying animal standards 
to time-binding beings is like applying inches to 
measuring weight. As a matter or fact, we cannot 
raise one class to a higher class, unless we add an 
entirely new function to the former; we can only 
improve their lower status; but if we apply the 
reverse method, we can degrade human standards 
to animal standards. 

Animal standards belong to a class of life whose 
capacity is not an exponential function of Time. 
There is nothing theological or sentimental in this 
fact; it is a purely mathematical truth. 

It is fatal to apply the "survival of the fittest" 
theory in the same sense to two radically different 
classes of life. The "survival of the fittest" for ani- 
mals for space-binders is survival in space, which 
means fighting and other brutal forms of struggle; 
on the other hand, "survival of the fittest" for 
human beings as such that is, for time-binders is 
survival in time, which means intellectual or spiritual 
competition, struggle for excellence, for making the 


best survive. The-fittest-in-time those who make 
the best survive are those who do the most in pro- 
ducing values for all mankind including posterity. 
This is the scientific base for natural ethics, and 
ethics from which there can be no side-stepping, or 

Therefore time-binders can not use "animal" logic 
without degrading themselves from their proper 
status as human beings their status as established 
by nature. "Animal" logic leads to "animal" ethics 
and "animal" economics; it leads inevitably to 
a brutalized industrial system in which cunning 
contrives to rob the living of the fruit of the 

Human logic points to human ethics and human 
economics; it will lead to a humanized industrial sys- 
tem in which competition will be competition in sci- 
ence, in art, in justice : a competition and struggle for 
the attainment of excellence in human life. The time- 
binding capacity, which manifests itself in drawing 
from the PAST, through the PRESENT for the FUTURE 
gives human beings the means of attaining a precious 
kind of immortality; it enables them to fulfill the 
law of their own class of life and to survive ever- 
lastingly in the fruits of their toil, a perpetual bless- 
ing to endless generations of the children of men. 
This is the truth we instinctively recognize when we 
call a great man "immortal." We mean that he has 


done deeds that survive in time for the perpetual 
weal of mankind. 

Human logic mathematical logic, the logic natu- 
ral for man will thus show us that "gocd" and 
"just" and "right" are to have their significance 
defined and understood entirely in terms of human 
nature. Human nature not animal nature is to 
be the basis and guide of Human Engineering. Thus 
based and guided, Human Engineering will eliminate 
"wild-cat schemers," gamblers and "politicians." It 
will put an end to industrial violence, strikes, insur- 
rections, war and revolutions. 

The present system of social life is largely built 
upon misconceptions or misrepresentations. For all 
work we need the human brain, the human time-bind- 
ing power, yet we continue to call it "hand-labor" 
and treat it as such. Even in mechanical science, 
in the use of the term "horse-power," we are incor- 
rect in this expression. How does this "horse" look 
in reality? Let us analyse this "horse." All science, 
all mechanical appliances have been produced by 
"man" and man alone. Everything we possess is the 
production of either dead men's or living men's 
work. The enslavement of the solar man-power is 
purely a human invention in theory and practice. 
Everything we have is evidently therefore a time- 
binding product. What perfect nonsense to call a 
purely human achievement the equivalent of so much 


"horse-power" ! Of course it does not matter math- 
ematically what name we give to a unit of power; 
we may call it a Zeus or a Zebra ; but there is a very 
vicious implication in using the name of an animal 
to denote a purely human product. Everything in 
our civilization was produced by MAN; it seems only 
reasonable that this unit of power which is the direct 
product of Man's work, should be correctly named 
after him. The educational effect would be whole- 
some and tremendous. The human value in work 
would be thus emphasized again and again, and re- 
spect for human work would be taught, from the 
beginning in the schools. This "horse-power" unit 
causes us to forget the human part in it and it de- 
grades human work to the level of a commodity. 
This is an example of the degrading influence of 
wrong conceptions and wrong language. I said 
"educational" because even our subconscious mind is 
affected by this. (See App. II.) 

Human Engineering will not interfere with any 
scientific research; on the contrary, it will promote 
it in many ways. Grown-ups, it is to be hoped, will 
stop the nonsense of intermixing dimensions, for 
which we chastise children. It is the same kind of 
blundering as when we intermix phenomena meas- 
uring "God" by human standards, or human beings 
by animal standards. The relationship, if any, be- 
tween these phenomena or the overlapping of dif- 


ferent classes, is interesting and important; but in 
studying such relationships of classes, it is fatal to 
mix the classes; for example, if we are studying the 
relations between surfaces and solids, it is fatal to 
mistake solids for surfaces ; just so, too, if we stupidly 
confuse humans with animals. 

In the reality of life, we are interested only in the 
values of the function of the phenomena by them- 
selves and to arrive at right conclusions we have to 
use units appropriate to the phenomena. The inter- 
mixing of units gives us a wrong conception of the 
values of each phenomenon; the results of our cal- 
culations are wrong and the outcome is a miscon- 
ception of the process of human life. The fact once 
realized, we will cease applying animal measures to 
man; even theology will abandon the monstrous 

Animal units and standards are to be applied to 
animals, human standards to man, "Divine" stand- 
ards to "God." 

In the dark ages, with the complete innocence or 
misunderstanding of science, the "why" of things was 
explained by the "who" of things ; therein investiga- 
tion culminated; man was regarded as homo sapiens 
and homo sapiens = animal X spark of jwpmiatu- 
ral; this monstrous formula was accepted as a final 
truth as an answer to the question: What is Man? 
This type of answer became in the hands of church 


and state a powerful instrument for keeping the 
people in subjection. 

The tendency of the masses to let others think for 
them is not really a natural characteristic quite the 
opposite. The habit of not thinking for one's self 
is the result of thousands of years of subjection. 
Those in authority, in general, used their ingenuity 
to keep the people from thinking. The most vital 
reason why many humans appear to be, and are often 
called, "stupid," is that they have been spoken to in 
a language of speculation which they instinctively 
dislike and distrust; thus there arose the proverb that 
speech was made to conceal the truth. It is no won- 
der that they appear "stupid," the wonder is that 
they are not more "stupid." The truth is that they 
will be found to be far less stupid when addressed 
in the natural language of ascertainable fact. My 
whole theory is based upon, and is in harmony with, 
the natural feelings of man. The conceptions I in- 
troduce are based on human nature. Natural lan- 
guage so different from the speech of metaphysical 
speculation will lead to mutual understanding and 
the disappearance of warring factions. 

"Discrimination, as the proverb rightly teaches, is the be- 
ginning of mind. The first psychic product of that initial 
psychic act is numerical: to discriminate is to produce two, 
the simplest possible example of multiplicity. The dis- 
covery, or better the invention, better still the production, 
best of all the creation, of multiplicity with its correlate of 


number, is, therefore, the most primitive achievement or man- 
ifestation of mind. . . . Let us, then, trust the arithmetic 
instinct as fundamental and, for instruments of thought that 
shall not fail, repair at once to the domain of number." (C. 
J. Keyser, Loc. Cit.) 

The thinking few knew the power there is in 
"thinking"; they wanted to have it and to keep the 
advantage of it for themselves; witness the late intro- 
duction of public schools. Belief in the inferiority of 
the masses became the unwritten law of the "privi- 
leged classes"; it was forced upon, rubbed into, the 
subconscious mind of the masses by church and state 
alike, and was humbly and dumbly accepted by the 
"lower orders" as their "destiny." Ignorance was 
proclaimed as a bliss. 

As time went on, this "coefficient of ignorance" 
became so useful to some people and some classes of 
people that no effort was spared to keep the world 
in ignorance. It gave a legalistic excuse to imprison, 
burn and hang people for expressing an opinion 
which the ruling classes did not like. The elimina- 
tion from church, from school, from universities, of 
any teacher, any professor or any minister who dared 
to exemplify or encourage fearless investigation and 
freedom of speech became very common. It is less 
common in our generation, but there remains much 
to win in the way of freedom. 

Freedom, rightly understood, is the aim of Human 


Engineering. But freedom is not license, it is not 
licentiousness. Freedom consists in lawful living 
in living in accord with the laws of human nature 
in accord with the natural laws of Man. A plant 
is free when it is not prevented from living and 
growing according to the natural laws of plant life ; 
an animal is free when it is not prevented from liv- 
ing according to the natural laws of animal life; 
human beings are free when and only when they are 
not prevented from living in accord with the natural 
laws of human life. I say "when not prevented," 
for human beings will live naturally and, therefore, 
in freedom, when they are not prevented from thus 
living by ignorance of what human nature is and by 
artificial social systems established, maintained, and 
protected by such ignorance. Human freedom con- 
sists in exercising the time-binding energies of man 
in accordance with the natural laws of such natural 
energies. Human freedom is thus the aim of Human 
Engineering because Human Engineering is to be 
the science of human nature and the art of conduct- 
ing human affairs in accordance with the laws of 
human nature. Survival of the fittest, where fittest 
means strongest, is a natural law for brutes, for ani- 
mals, for the class of mere space-binders. Survival 
of the fittest, where fittest means best in science and 
art and wisdom, is a natural law for mankind, the 
time-binding class of life. 


TN the World War Germany displayed tremen- 
dous power. Restraining our emotions as much 
as possible, let us endeavor to analyse that power 
with mathematical dispassionateness. 

Why did Germany display more power than any 
other single nation? Because in the establishment of 
her "ethics," her political system, and her economic 
structure, Germany availed herself, in larger meas- 
ure than any other nation, of scientific achievements 
and scientific methods. It is a very common, very 
erroneous, and very harmful belief that war was cre- 
ated solely by a "war-lord." Every idea or move- 
ment doubtless originates with somebody but back of 
such "originations" or initiations there are favoring 
conditions, forces and impulsions. The stage is set 
by life and the ages; the actor enters and the show 
begins. In the instance in question, the stage was 
set by our whole modern system of civilization. The 
war lords were the "Deus ex machina" the show 
was a real one a tragedy. 

The true origin of this war must be looked for 



in the economic field. Our economic system is the 
very complicated result of all our creeds, philoso- 
phies and social customs. It is therefore impossible 
to understand the working of the economic forces 
without understanding the foundation upon which 
this system of forces is based. A short list of works 
on the subject is given at the end of this book. A 
plain statement here will be enough. 

Germany was committed to a policy of indefinite 
industrial expansion. This artificial expansion had 
reached its limits. Germany was on the verge of 
bankruptcy. Only a victorious war could avoid a 
national catastrophe; she played her last card, and 
lost despite her gigantic power, the greatest ever 
displayed by any nation. The leading European 
states were not able to overpower her for a long 
time. This writing is not intended as an apology 
for Germany, much less to praise her or her war 
lords. German purposes were nationally narrow 
and nationally selfish to the root; her methods were 
inhuman but Germany displayed power; and without 
the understanding of power, Human Engineering is 

It is possibly a fault of the writer's military train- 
ing, but it seems to him that the "General Staff" 
point of view has as much claim to consideration as 
any other among the many different interpretations 
of history perhaps it has more. It is not the pri- 


mary aim of the general staff to "fight," very far 
from it. Their primary aim is "victory" and all the 
better if victory be possible without a fight. Strategy, 
brain-work, intelligence, knowledge of facts these 
are the chief weapons; brutal fighting is only a last 
resort. It is highly important to bear that in mind. 
Soldiers and engineers do not argue they act. Ger- 
many affords the first example of a philosophy or a 
society having for its main purpose the generating 
of power to "do things." It seems only reasonable 
and intelligent to analyse the history of the war 
from the engineer's point of view, which, in this case, 
happens to coincide with the military point of view. 
It must be clearly understood that the modern gen- 
eral staff, or military, point of view has very little or 
nothing to do with the romance or poetry of war. 
War to-day is a grim business but "business" before 
all else. It has to mobilize all the resources of a 
nation and generate power to the limit of its 
capacity. The conduct of war to-day is a techno- 
logical affair its methods have to be engineering 
methods. To crush an obstacle, there is need of a 
giant hammer, and the more mass that can be given 
it and the greater the force put behind it, the more 
deadly will be the blow. Prior to the World War 
technology had not been mobilized on so vast a scale 
nor confronted with a task so gigantic. Mobilized 
technology has revealed and demonstrated the fact 


that it is possible to generate almost unlimited power 
and has shown the way to do it; at the same time 
it has demonstrated the measureless potency of engi- 
neering and our utter helplessness without it. Tech- 
nology is comparatively a new science; by some it is 
called a "semi-science" because it deals primarily 
with the application of science to practical issues. 
But when it became necessary "to do things," an 
engineer had to be called; the general staff had to 
adopt his view, and all other practices and traditions 
were bent to his ideas. 

I have already repeatedly pointed out that the 
progress of technology proceeds according to a law 
like that of a rapidly increasing geometrical progres- 
sion, and I have stressed the danger of inattention 
to any phenomena, force or movement that conforms 
to such a law. We have only to recollect the story 
of the simple but very greedy farmer who was very 
happy to make a contract with a laborer for a 
month's work, paying him only one cent the first day, 
twice as much the second, twice for the third, and so 
on to the end. Behold! The bill for the month ran 
into millions of dollars and the farmer was ruined. 
Such is the deadly secret of the geometrical progres- 
sion. Violent readjustments await any society whose 
ethics, jurisprudence and the like do not keep pace 
with the developments of engineering. 

Engineers are the wizards who, using the results 


of scientific research, can subjugate or release the 
concealed powers of nature. The supreme factor is 
the use of the mind the exponential function of time 
the time-binding energy of man. From that we 
have to take our start because that is the source of 
human power. 

The German philosophy, as a whole, has its defi- 
nite place in the history of philosophy; and the first 
thing to consider are those philosophic writers who 
directly and indirectly have contributed to the build- 
ing up of German power. Hegel greatly affected the 
building up of the German mind strange as it may 
seem; but Hegel was greatly under the influence of 
the work of Fichte, and Fichte in turn under that of 
Spinoza. All of them were, in a way, mathema- 
ticians in their methods and philosophy, as much as 
they could be in their time. I said "strange," be- 
cause it is significant that the mathematical part of 
their philosophy was just the part which built up the 
German power. But if we look into it, it is not 

It had to be so, because mathematical and me- 
chanical methods are the only ones by which power 
can be understood and built. Hegel in 1805 lectured 
on history of philosophy, pure mathematics and nat- 
ural law. It would be hard to find a better combi- 
nation for a philosophy of power. That is precisely 
what this philosophy was. It influenced not only Ger- 


man philosophy but even German theology, and 
through these channels it sank deep into the national 
consciousness. It affected every phase of life. An 
immense cult of disciples arose. Each one added 
something to that philosophy of power. One of the 
most brilliant representatives of this movement is 
Professor Oswald, who in his Monist Sermons gave 
the famous advice: "Do not waste energy but give it 
value." The German understanding of the great 
value of technology directly applied that principle to 
their philosophy, law, ethics, politics, and so on. 

With increase of population, the problem o he 
State becomes more and more pressing. There are 
many theories about the state. For the purpose of 
the moment it is important to realize that a state 
is the governing center of an accumulation of human 
beings of time-binding powers increasing expo- 
nential functions of time. These powers, though 
the same in kind, differ in degree and in respect of 
individuality. If they are to be united so as to 
constitute a whole, they must be given a common 
aim; they must, so to speak, be reduced to a com- 
mon base; if they be respectively X m , Y n , Z p , and 
so on, we can not unite them and compute the whole 
by adding the exponents; but if we give them a com- 
mon base a common aim or purpose then we can 
readily represent the magnitudes of the whole con- 
stituted by them; if we take X to be their common 


aim or base, then, if Y = aX, Z=bX, and so on, we 
shall have: 

X n -Y n -Z p . . . = X m -a n -X n -b p 'X v . . . 
= (a n -b p . . ,)X m+n+p . . . 

The last expression, where the parenthetical coeffi- 
cient is the product of individualities, serves to 
represent the united powers of all in t?rms of X 9 
the common base, purpose or aim. 

Let us look at the matter in another way. One 
mechanical "horse-power" is less than the power of 
one living horse. One living horse can do more 
work than one mechanical horse-power, but in using 
more than one living horse at one time we get less 
work than by using the same number of mechanical 
horse-powers; the reason is very obvious. The me- 
chanical horse-powers are the same in kind, equal, 
and constant, but living horses differ in character, 
they are not equal, and each one is a variable. Hence 
mechanical horse-powers can be added or multiplied 
arithmetically, but the powers of living horses can 
not, except very roughly; the living horses of a team 
interfere with each other; they do not pull together, 
as we say, and energy is lost. 

The German mathematical philosophy or theory 
of the state did not express itself in just this way, 
but the foregoing gives a clue to it. Germany united 
the powers of living men and women and children: 


it gave them a common base; it gave them one com- 
mon "social" mood and aim; they all became con- 
solidated in service of that which is called the State; 
they studied and taught for the State; they worked, 
lived and died for the State : the State was their idol, 
King and God. 

Such was the aim of German philosophy, theology, 
law and science. The establishment of ONE AIM for 
all was the decisive factor. It is obvious that if we 
want to inspire 60 Millions of individuals with one 
aim, this aim can not be private or personal. It 
must be a higher aim, collective, general, impersonal, 
in some way uniting and including all personal aims. 
I shall call it simply a collective aim. But collective 
aims may differ profoundly in kind; out of personal 
or egoistic aims there grows a series of collective 
aims, increasing in generality, such as: (i) Family 
aims; (2) association, congregation, club aims; (3) 
class or professional aims; (4) national or race aims; 
and finally (5) HUMAN AIMS the natural aims for 
the time-binding class of life. The fatal error of 
German political philosophy was an error of aim 
her aim was too low too narrow the welfare of 
a state instead of the welfare of Humanity. 

In the case of Germany, the national aim was 
equivalent to the state aim. German philosophy 
made the "state" equivalent to the "good" and equiv- 
alent to "power." Of course such philosophy influ- 


enced the whole national life in every detail; in con- 
sequence Germany proclaimed herself the first nation 
of the world, and this soon evolved into a plan for 
the conquest of the world. The German General 
Staff as an institution had, par excellence, as its aim 
and first object, "power," "concentration of power" 
and "efficiency." It took the leadership in all 
branches of life and industry. Militarism and indus- 
trialism are almost synonymous from the mechanical 
point of view; they are both of them power. They 
both have to use the same scientific methods and 
in the present conditions of the world they are de- 
pendent upon each other, for war cannot be waged 
without strong industries. Here we have to face 
the fact that geometrically progressing industry can 
not live without new markets, which under present 
conditions have been largely acquired, directly or in- 
directly, by the power of the army; and this has been 
the case with Germany. If we curse Germany for 
being a "military nation" we can, with no less justice, 
curse her for being a completely "industrialized 
nation." If we add to that her nationally selfish 
and narrow national aim, we will readily understand 
this "world peach." Those who have tasted it know 
something of its sweetness. 

There is no need to go into further details. Special 
books give us all the data. That which is of interest 
is the impersonal fact that what was the strength 


and power of Germany is the best possible illustra-, 
tion we have had of what science and a sort of math- 
ematical philosophy are able to accomplish, even 
when directed, not to the welfare of Humanity, but 
to that of a relatively small group of people. The 
above-cited political philosophies had a very pro- 
nounced effect upon Marx. One of the branches of 
socialism is the so-called state socialism. State social- 
ists, as the name indicates, believe that the state should 
assume the most important functions in society. It 
is obvious that in monarchical countries where "god- 
given" rulers represent the state, such a theory is not 
unwelcome, as it gives the rulers an opportunity to 
show a sort of "advanced liberalism," which serves 
to strengthen their power. The astute Bismarck can 
not be suspected of being a progressionist in the 
modern sense but, being a product of German culture 
and philosophy, all his ideals were those of a strong 
state. He was a proclaimed advocate of state social- 
ism. Since 1879 at least, Bismarck was considered 
almost the leading spirit of paternal state socialism. 
He was a believer and promoter of the close rela- 
tion of the state and the railways, keeping always 
in view a thorough nationalization which he finally 
accomplished. This fact eliminated from German 
public life all that phase of corruption which private 
ownership of railroads brings in any country, the 
railroad being the very life of any country. 


To sum up: Germany applied the most scientific 
methods to build up her national power; she under- 
stood the elements of "power," for they were dis- 
closed to her by her science and her philosophy. She 
applied technological methods in every part of her 
civil life, and thus built her gigantic power. Her 
industrial life followed the military way; her mili- 
tary strength was built on industrial power. And 
so the vicious circle. Germany adopted a collective 
aim instead of a personal individualistic aim, and 
because of this broader aim, she was able to mobilize 
and to keep mobilized all her moral, political and 
industrial forces for long years before the war. The 
direct effect of this system of continuous mobilization 
was over-production. For this she desperately 
needed new markets. The cheapest and quickest way 
to acquire them, if they were not to be grabbed other- 
wise, was to conquer them by a victorious war. Her 
plans progressed according to the program, all except 
the victory in the battle fields. 

This war was a calamity of unprecedented mag- 
nitude for the world and it is our duty to study it 
dispassionately and learn the lesson of it, if we do 
not want to be moral accomplices of this great mod- 
ern crime, by letting the world drift into an even 
worse catastrophe. We have to arouse ourselves 
from our inertia and go to the bottom of this prob- 
lem and analyse it ruthlessly, no matter whether the 


analysis be pleasant or not. We must value every- 
one of our "ten sacred dead" at least as much as 
we value one rabbit killed in scientific laboratories, 
and take the lesson to heart or be prepared for a 
repetition of world slaughter. 

If Human Engineering had been established long 
ago our social system would have been different, our 
civilization would have been much higher, this war 
would have been avoided. We do not need to delude 
ourselves. The World War was the result of badly 
balanced social and economic forces. The world 
needs other "balances of power" than such as are 
devised by lawyers and politicians, by single-selfish 
or group-selfish interests. Humanity is reaching out 
for a science and art of human guidance based upon 
a right understanding of human nature. 



TN a previous chapter I have said that the World 
War marks the end of one vast period in the 
life of humankind and marks the beginning of 
another. It marks the end of Humanity's Childhood 
and the beginning of Humanity's Manhood. 

Our human Past is a mighty fact of our world. 
Many facts are unstable, impermanent, and evan- 
escent they are here to-day, and to-morrow they 
are gone. Not so with the great fact of our human 
Past. Our past abides. 

"It is permanent. It can be counted on. It is nearly 
eternal as the race of man. Out of that past we have come. 
Into it we are constantly returning. Meanwhile, it is of 
the utmost importance to our lives. It contains the roots 
of all we are, and of all we have of wisdom, of science, of 
philosophy, of art, of jurisprudence, of customs and insti- 
tutions. It contains the record or ruins of all the experi- 
ments that man has made during a quarter or a half million 
years in the art of living in this world." (Keyser, Human 
Worth of Rigorous Thinking.) 

In our relation to the past there are three wide- 
open ways in which one may be a fool. One of the 
ways is the way of ignoring the past- the way of 



remaining blankly ignorant of the human past as the 
animals are blankly ignorant of their past and so of 
drifting through life as animals do, without refer- 
ence to the experience of bygone generations. Fools 
of this type may be called drifting fools or Drifters. 
Another way to be a fool a very alluring way is 
that of falsifying the past by idealizing it by stu- 
pidly disregarding its vices, misery, ignorance, sloth- 
fulness, and folly, and stupidly magnifying its vir- 
tues, happiness, knowledge, achievements and wis- 
dom; it is the way of the self-complacent the way 
of those who, being comfortably situated and pros^ 
perous, are opposed to change; the past, they say, 
was wise for it produced the present and the present 
is good let us alone. Fools of this type may be 
called idolatrous fools, worshiping the Past; or static 
fools, contented with the Present; or cowardly fools, 
opposed to change, fearful of the Future. A third 
way to be a fool which is also alluring is the op- 
posite of the foregoing; it is the way of those who 
falsify the past by stupidly and contemptuously dis- 
regarding its virtues, its happiness, its knowledge, 
its great achievements, and its wisdom, and by stu- 
pidly or dishonestly magnifying its vices, its misery, 
its ignorance, its great slothfulness, and its folly; 
it is apt to be the way of the woeful, the unpros- 
perous, the desperate especially the way of such as 
find escape from the bore of routine life in the excite- 


ments of unrest, turbulence, and change; the past, 
they say, was all wrong, for it produced the present 
and the present is thoroughly bad let us destroy it, 
root and branch. Fools of this type may be called 
scorning fools, Scorners of the Past; or destroying 
fools, Destroyers of the Present; or dynamic fools, 
Revelers in the excitements of Change. 

Such are the children of folly: (i) Drifting fools 
ignorers of the past disregarders of race expe- 
rience thoughtless floaters on the shifting currents 
of human affairs; (2) Static fools idealizers of the 
past complacent lovers of the present enemies of 
change fearful of the future; (3) Dynamic fools 
scorners of the past haters of the present de- 
stroyers of the works of the dead most modest of 
fools, each of them saying: "What ought to be begins 
with Me; I will make the world a paradise; but my 
genius must be free; now it is hampered by the exist- 
ing 'order' the bungling work of the past; I will 
destroy it; I will start with chaos; we need light 
the Sun casts shadows I will begin by blotting out 
the Sun; then the world will be full of glory the 
light of my genius." 

In striking contrast with that three-fold division 
of Folly, the counsel of Wisdom is one, and it is 
one with the sober counsel of Common Sense. What 
is that counsel? What is the united counsel of wis- 
dom and common sense respecting the past? The 


answer is easy and easy to understand. The counsel 
is this: Do not ignore the past but study it study 
it diligently as being the mightiest factor among the 
great factors of our human world; endeavor to view 
the past justly, to contemplate it as it was and is, 
to see it whole to see it in true perspective mag- 
nifying neither its good nor its evil, neither its 
knowledge nor its ignorance, neither its enterprise 
nor its slothfulness, neither its achievements nor its 
failures; as the salient facts are ascertained, endeavor 
to account for them, to find their causes, their favor- 
ing conditions, to explain the facts to understand 
them, applying always the question Why? Centuries 
of centuries of cruel superstition Why? Centuries 
of centuries of almost complete ignorance of natu- 
ral law Why? Centuries of centuries of mon- 
strous misconceptions of human nature Why? 
Measureless creations, wastings arid destructions of 
wealth Why? Endless rolling cycles of enterprise, 
stagnation, and decay Why? Interminable altera- 
tions of peace and war, enslavements and emancipa- 
tions Why? Age after age of world-wide worship 
of man-made gods, silly, savage, enthroned by myth 
and magic, celebrated and supported by poetry and 
the wayward speculations of ignorant "sages" 
Why? Age upon age of world-wide slow develop- 
ments of useful inventions, craftsmanship, commerce, 
and art Why? Ages of dark impulsive groping 


before the slow discovery of reason, followed by cen- 
turies of belief in the sufficiency of ratiocination un- 
aided by systematic observation and experiment 
Why? At length the dawn of scientific method and 
science, the growth of natural knowledge, immeas- 
urable expansion of the universe in Time and in 
Space, belief in the lawfulness of Nature, rapidly 
increasing subjugation of natural forces to human 
control, growing faith in the limitless progressibility 
of human knowledge and in the limitless perfecti- 
bility of human welfare Why? The widely diverse 
peoples of the world constrained by scientific prog- 
ress to live together as in one community upon a 
greatly shrunken and rapidly shrinking planet, the 
unpreparedness of existing ethics, law, philosophy, 
economics, politics and government to meet the 
exigencies thus arising Why? 

Such I take to be the counsel of wisdom the sim- 
ple wisdom of sober common sense. To ascertain 
the salient facts of our immense human past and then 
to explain them in terms of their causes and condi- 
tions is not an easy task. It is an exceedingly dif- 
ficult one, resuiring the labor of many men, of many 
generations; but it must be performed; for it is only 
in proportion as we learn to know the great facts 
of our human past and their causes that we are 
enabled to understand our human present, for the 
present is the child of the past ; and it is only in pro- 


portion as we thus learn to understand the present 
that we can face the future with confidence and com- 
petence. Past, Present, Future these can not be 
understood singly and separately they are welded 
together indissolubly as one. 

The period of humanity's childhood has been long 
i 300,000 to 500,000 years, according to the witness 
of human relics, ruins and records of the caves and 
the rocks a stretch of time too vast for our imagi- 
nations to grasp. Of that immense succession of 
ages, except a minute fraction of it including our own 
time, we have, properly speaking, no history; we 
have only a rude, dim, broken outline. Herodotus, 
whom we call "the father of history" proper, lived 
less than 2500 years ago. What is 2500 years com- 
pared with the whole backward stretch of human 
time? We have to say that the father of human 
history lived but yesterday a virtual contemporary 
of those now living. Our humankind groped upon 
this globe for probably 400,000 years before the 
writing of what we call history had even begun. If 
we regard history as a kind of racial memory, what 
must we say of our race's memory? It is like that 
of a man of 20 years whose recollection extends 
back less than 3 months or like that of a man of 60 
years whose recollection fails to reach any event 
of the first 59 years of his life. Owing to the work 
of geologists, paleontologists, ethnologists and their 


co-workers, the history of prehistoric man will grow, 
just as we know to-day more about the life of man- 
kind in the time of Herodotus than Herodotus him- 
self knew. Meanwhile we must try to make the best 
use of such historical knowledge of man as we now 

Even if the story of humanity's childhood were 
fully recorded in the libraries of the world, it would 
not be possible in this brief writing to recount the 
story in even the most summary fashion. Except the 
tale of recent years, the story is known as I have 
said, only in outline, rude, dim and broken, but for 
the present purpose this will suffice. Countless mul- 
titudes of details are lost most of them doubtless 
forever. But we need not despair. The really great 
facts of our racial childhood the massive, domi- 
nant, outstanding facts are sufficiently clear for our 
guidance in the present enterprise. And what do we 

We know that the period of our human child- 
hood has been inconceivably long; we know that in 
the far distant time, the first specimens of human- 
kind the initial members of the time-binding race 
of man were absolutely without human knowledge 
of the hostile world in which they found themselves ; 
we know that they had no conception of what they 
themselves were; we know that they had neither 
speech nor art nor philosophy nor religion nor sci- 


ence nor tools nor human history nor human tradi- 
tion; we know, though we to-day can hardly imagine 
it, that their sole equipment for initiating the career 
of the human race was that peculiar faculty which 
made them human the capacity of man for binding 
time; we know that they actually did that work of 
initiation, without any guidance or example, maxim 
or precedent; and we know that they were able to do 
it just because the power of initiation the power to 
originate is a time-binding power. 

What else do we know of the earliest part of 
humanity's childhood? We know that in that far- 
distant age, our ancestors being, not animals, but 
human creatures not only began to live in the 
human dimension of life forever above the level of 
animals but continued therein, taking not only the 
first step, but the second, the third, and so on in- 
definitely; we know, in other words, that they were 
progressive creatures, that they made advancement; 
we know that their progress was natural to them 
as natural as swimming is to fishes or as flying is to 
birds for both the impulse and the ability to pro- 
gress to make improvement to do greater things 
by help of things already done are of the very 
nature of the time-binding capacity which makes 
humans human. 

We know that time-binding capacity the capac- 
ity for accumulating racial experience, enlarging it, 


and transmitting it for future expansion is the 
peculiar power, the characteristic energy, the defini- 
tive nature, the defining mark, of man; we know 
that the mental power, the time-binding capacity, 
of our pre-historic ancestors, was the same in kind 
as our own, if not in degree; we know that it is 
natural for this capacity, the highest known agency 
of Nature, to produce ideas, inventions, insights, 
doctrines, knowledge and other forms of wealth; 
we know that progress in what we call civilization, 
which is nothing but progress in the production and 
right use of material and spiritual wealth, has been 
possible and actual simply and solely because the 
products of time-binding work not only survive, but 
naturally tend to propagate their kind ideas 
begetting ideas, inventions leading to other inven- 
tions, knowledge breeding knowledge; we therefore, 
know that the amount of progress which a single 
generation can make, if it have an adequate supply 
of raw material and be unhampered by hostile cir- 
cumstances, depends, not only upon its native 
capacity for binding time, but also and this is of 
the utmost importance upon the total progress 
made by preceding generations upon the inherited 
fruit, that is, of the time-binding toil of the dead; 
accordingly we know that the amount of progress a 
single generation can thus make is what mathemati- 
cians call an increasing function of time, and not 


only an increasing function but an increasing expo- 
nential function of time a function like PR T , as 
already explained; we know, too, that the total 
progress which T successive generations can thus 
make is: 

R T 
R i 

which is also an increasing exponential function of 
time; we know from the differential calculus that 
these functions which represent natural laws, laws 
of human nature, laws of the time-binding energies 
of man are very remarkable functions not only do 
they increase with time but their rates of increase 
are also exponential functions of time and so the 
rates of increase themselves increase at rates which 
are, again, exponential functions, and so on and on 
without limit; that, I say, is a marvelous fact, and 
it is for us a fact of immeasurable significance; for 
it means that the time-binding power of man is such 
that, if it be allowed to operate naturally, civilization 
the production and right use of material and 
spiritual wealth will not only grow towards infinity 
(as mathematicians say), but will thus grow with 
a swiftness which is not constant but which itself 
grows towards infinity with a swiftness which, again, 
is not constant but increases according to the same 
law, and so on indefinitely. We thus see, if we will 


only retire to our cloisters and contemplate it, that 
the proper life of man as man is not life-in-space 
like that of animals, but is life-in-time; we thus see 
that in distinctively human life, in the life of man 
as man, the past is present and the dead survive 
destined to greet and to bless the unborn genera- 
tions: time, bound-up time, is literally of the core 
and substance of civilization. So it has been since 
the beginning of man. 

We know that the total progress made in the long 
course of humanity's childhood, though it is abso- 
lutely great, is relatively small; we know that, com- 
pared with no-civilization, our present civilization is 
vast and rich in many ways; we know, however, that, 
if the time-binding energies of humanity had been 
always permitted to operate unhampered by hostile 
circumstances, they would long ere now have pro- 
duced a state of civilization compared with which 
our present estate would seem mean, meagre, savage. 
For we know that those peculiar energies the civili- 
zation-producing energies of man far from being 
always permitted to operate according to the laws 
of their nature, have never been permitted so to 
operate, but have always been hampered and are 
hampered to-day by hostile circumstances. And, if 
we reflect, we may know well enough what the 
enemies the hostile circumstances have been and 
are. We know that in the beginning of humanity's 


childhood in its babyhood, so to speak there was, 
as already said, no capital whatever to start with 
no material wealth no spiritual wealth in the form 
of knowledge of the world or the nature of man 
no existing fruit of dead men's toil no bound-up 
time nothing but wild and raw material, whose 
very location, properties and potencies had all to be 
discovered; even now, because we have inherited so 
much bound-up time and because our imaginations 
have been so little disciplined to understand realities, 
we can scarcely picture to ourselves the actual condi- 
tions of that far-off time of humanity's babyhood; 
still less do we realize that present civilization has 
hardly begun to be that of enlightened men. We 
know, moreover, that the time-binding energies of 
our remote ancestors were hampered and baulked, 
in a measure too vast for our imaginations, by im- 
mense geologic and climatic changes, both sudden 
and secular, unforeseen and irresistible by earth- 
quake and storm, by age-long seasons of flood and 
frost and heat and drought, not only destroying both 
natural resources and the slowly accumulated prod- 
ucts of by-gone generations but often extinguishing 
the people themselves with the centers and abodes of 
struggling civilization. 

Of all the hostile circumstances, of all the causes 
which throughout the long period of humanity's 
childhood have operated to keep civilization and 


human welfare from progressing in full accord with 
the natural laws of the time-binding energies of man, 
the most potent cause and most disastrous, a cause 
still everywhere in operation, remains to be men- 
tioned. I mean human ignorance. I do not mean 
ignorance of physical facts and the laws of physical 
nature for this latter ignorance is in large measure 
the effect of the cause I have in mind. The igno- 
rance I mean is far more fundamental and far more 
potent. I mean human ignorance of Human Nature 
I mean man's ignorance of what Man is I mean 
false conceptions of the rightful place of man in the 
scheme of life and the order of the world. What 
the false conceptions are I have already pointed out. 
They are two. One of them is the conception accord- 
ing to which human beings are animals. The other 
one is the conception according to which human 
beings have no place in Nature but are hybrids of 
natural and ^wp^rnatural, animals combined with 
something "divine." Both of them are characteristic 
of humanity's childhood; both of them are erro- 
neous, and both of them have done infinite harm in 
a thousand ways. Whose is the fault? In a deep 
sense, it is the fault of none. Man started with no 
capital on knowledge with nothing but his phys- 
ical strength and the natural stirring within of the 
capacity for binding time; and so he had to grope. 
It is not strange that he was puzzled by himself. It 


is not strange that he thought himself an animal; 
for he has animal propensities as a cube has sur- 
faces, and his animal propensities were so obtrusive, 
so very evident to physical sense he was born, grew, 
had legs and hair, ate, ran, slept, died all just like 
animals while his distinctive mark, his time-binding 
capacity, was subtle; it was spiritual; it was not a 
visible organ but an invisible function; it was the 
energy called intellect or mind, which the physical 
senses do not perceive ; and so I say it is not strange 
it is indeed very sad and very pathetic but it is 
not to be wondered at that human beings have falsely 
believed themselves to be animals. So, too, of the 
rival belief the belief that humans are neither nat- 
ural nor supernatural but are both at once, at once 
brutal and divine, hybrid offspring of beast and god. 
The belief is monstrous, it is very pathetic and very 
sad, but its origin is easy to understand; once in- 
vented, it became a powerful instrument for evil men, 
for impostors, but it was not invented by them; it 
was only an erroneous result of an honest effort to 
understand and to explain. For the obvious facts 
created a real puzzle to be explained: On the one 
hand, men, women and children animal-hunting 
and animal-hunted human beings certainly re- 
sembled animals physically in a hundred unmistak- 
able ways; on the other hand, it became more and 
more evident that the same animal-resembling 


human beings could do many things which animals 
never did and could not do. Here was a puzzle, a 
mystery. Time-binding curiosity demanded an ex- 
planation. What was it to be? Natural science had 
not yet arisen; critical conception conception that 
avoids the mixing of dimensions was in the state of 
feeble infancy. It is easy to understand what the 
answer had to be childish and mythical; and so it 
was humans are neither animals nor gods, neither 
natural nor jwpmiatural, they are both at once, a 
mixture, a mysterious union of animal with some- 
thing "divine." 

Such, then, are the two rival answers which, in the 
long dark, groping course of humanity's childhood, 
human beings have given to the most important of 
all questions the question: What is Man? I have 
said that the answers, no matter how sincere, no 
matter how honestly arrived at, are erroneous, false 
to fact, and monstrous. I have said, and I repeat, 
that the misconceptions involved in them have done 
more throughout the by-gone centuries, and are 
doing more to-day, than all other hindering causes, 
to hamper and thwart the natural activity of the 
time-binding energies of man and thus to retard the 
natural progress of civilization. It is not merely 
our privilege, it is our high and solemn duty, to 
examine them. To perform the great duty is not an 
easy task. The misconceptions in question have come 


down to us from remote antiquity; they have not 
come down singly, separately, clean-cut, clear and 
well-defined; they have come entangled in the com- 
plicated mesh of traditional opinions and creeds that 
constitute the vulgar "philosophy" the mental fog 
of our time. If we are to perform the duty of 
examining them we have first of all to draw them 
forth, to disengage them from our inherited tangle 
of beliefs and frame them in suitable words ; we have 
next to bring ourselves to realize vividly and keenly 
that the conceptions, thus disentangled and framed, 
are in fact, whether they be true or false, at the 
very heart of the social philosophy of the world; 
we have in the third place to detect the fundamental 
character of the blunder involved in them to see 
clearly and coldly wherein they are wrong and why 
they are ruinous ; we have, finally, to trace, if we can, 
their deadly effects both in the course of human 
history and in the present status of our human world. 
The task of disengaging the two monstrous mis- 
conceptions from the tangled skein of inherited be- 
liefs and framing them in words, I have already 
repeatedly performed. Let us keep the results in 
mind. Here they are in their nakedness : ( i ) 
Human beings men, women, and children are 
animals (and so they are natural) : (2) human 
beings are neither natural nor supernatural, neither 
wholly animal nor wholly "divine," but are both 


natural and supernatural at once a sort of mysteri- 
ous hybrid compound of brute and gods. 

The second part of our task which is the reader's 
task as much as mine is not so easy; and the reason 
is evident. It is this : The false creeds in question 
the fatal misconceptions they involve are so 
familiar to us they have been so long and so deeply 
imbedded in our thought and speech and ways of 
life we have been so thoroughly bred in them by 
home and school and church and state that we 
habitually and unconsciously take them for granted 
and have to be virtually stung into an awareness of 
the fact that we do actually hold them and that they 
do actually reign to-day throughout the world and 
have so reigned from time immemorial. We have, 
therefore, to shake ourselves awake, to prick our- 
selves into a realization of the truth. 

I assume that the reader is at once hard-headed, 
rational, I mean, and interested in the welfare of 
mankind. If he is not, he will not be a "reader" 
of this book. He, therefore, knows that the third 
task the task of detecting and exposing the funda- 
mental error of the misconceptions in question is 
a task of the utmost importance. What is that error? 
It is, I have said, an error in logic. But logical 
errors are not all alike they are of many kinds. 
What is the "kind" of this one? It is the kind that 
consists in what mathematicians call "confusion of 


types," or "mixing of dimensions." The answer can 
not be made too clear nor too emphatic, for its im- 
portance in the criticism of all our thinking is great 
beyond measure. There are millions of examples 
that help to make the matter clear. I will again 
employ the simplest of them one so simple that a 
child can understand it. It is a mathematical ex- 
ample, as it ought to be, for the whole question of 
logical types, or dimensions, is a mathematical one. 
I beg the reader not to shy at, or run away from, 
the mere word mathematical, for, although most of 
us have but little mathematical knowledge, we all of 
us have the mathematical spirit, for else we should 
not be human we are all of us mathematicians at 
heart. Let us, then, proceed confidently and at once 
to our simple example. Here is a surface, say a 
plane surface. It has length and breadth and so 
it has, we say, tivo dimensions ; next consider a solid, 
say a cube. It has length, breadth and thickness 
and so It has, we say, three dimensions. Now we 
notice that the cube has surfaces and so has certain 
surface properties. Do we, therefore, say that a 
solid Is a surface? That the cube is a member of 
the class of surfaces? If we did, we should be fools 
type-confusing fools dimension-mixing fools. 
That is evident. Or suppose we notice that solids 
have certain surface properties and certain prop- 
erties that surfaces do not have; and suppose we say 


the surface properties of solids are natural but the 
other properties are so mysterious that they must 
be "jwprniatural" or somehow "divine" ; and sup- 
pose we then say that solids are unions, mixtures, 
compounds or hybrids of surfaces and something 
divine or 5/>miatural; is it not evident that, if we 
did that, we should be again blundering like fools? 
Type-confusing fools? Dimension-mixing fools? 
That such would be the case any one can see. Let 
us now consider animals and human beings, and let 
us look squarely and candidly at the facts. To get 
a start, think for a moment of plants. Plants are 
living things; they take, transform and appropriate 
the energies of sun, soil, and air, but they have not 
the autonomous power to move about in space; we 
may say that plants constitute the lowest order or 
class or type or dimension of life the dimension 
one; plants, we see are binders of the basic energies 
of the world. What of animals? Like the plants, 
animals, too, take in, transform and appropriate the 
energies of sun, soil and air, though in large part 
they take them in forms already prepared by the 
plants themselves; but, unlike the plants, animals 
possess the autonomous power to move about in 
space to creep or crawl or run or swim or fly it 
is thus evident that, compared with plants, animals 
belong to a higher order, or higher class, or higher 
type, or higher dimension of life; we may therefore 


say that the type of animal life is a type of two 
dimensions a two-dimensional type; I have called 
them space-binders because they are distinguished, or 
marked, by their autonomous power to move about 
in space, to abandon one place and occupy another 
and so to appropriate the natural fruits of many 
localities; the life of animals is thus a life-in-space 
in a sense evidently not applicable to plants. And 
now what shall we say of Man? Like the animals, 
human beings have indeed the power of mobility 
the autonomous power to move the capacity for 
binding space, and it is obvious that, if they pos- 
sessed no capacity of higher order, men, women and 
children would indeed be animals. But what are 
the facts? The facts, if we will but note them and 
reflect upon them, are such as to show us that the 
chasm separating human nature from animal nature 
is even wider and deeper than the chasm between 
animal life and the life of plants. For man im- 
proves, animals do not; man progresses, animals do 
not; man invents more and more complicated tools, 
animals do not; man is a creator of material and 
spiritual wealth, animals are not; man is a builder 
of civilization, animals are not; man makes the past 
live in the present and the present in the future, 
animals do not; man is thus a binder of time, ani- 
mals are not. In the light of such considerations, if 
only we will attend to their mighty significance, it 


is as clear as anything can be or can become, that 
the life of man the time-binder is as radically dis- 
tinct from that of animals mere space-binders as 
animal life is distinct from that of plants or 
as the nature of a solid is distinct from that of 
a surface, or that of a surface from that of a line. 
It is, therefore, perfectly manifest that, when we re- 
gard human beings as animals or as mixtures of ani- 
mal nature with something mysteriously supernatural, 
we are guilty of the same kind of blunder as if we 
regarded animals as plants or as plants touched by 
"divinity" the same kind of blunder as that of re- 
garding a solid as a surface or as a surface miracu- 
lously transfigured by some mysterious influence from 
outside the universe of space. It is thus evident that 
our guilt in the matter is the guilt of a blunder that 
is fundamental a confusing of types, a mixing of 

Nothing can be more disastrous. For what are 
the consequences of that kind of error? Let the 
reader reflect. He knows that, if our ancestors had 
committed that kind of error regarding lines and 
surfaces and solids, there would to-day be no science 
of geometry; and he knows that, if there were no 
geometry, there would be no architecture in the 
world, no surveying, no railroads, no astronomy, no 
charting of the seas, no steamships, no engineering, 
nothing whatever of the now familiar world-wide 


affairs made possible by the scientific conquest of 
space. I say again, let the reader reflect; for if he 
does not, he will here miss the gravity of a most 
momentous truth. He readily sees, in the case sup- 
posed, how very appalling the consequences would 
have been if, throughout the period of humanity's 
childhood, there had occurred a certain confusion 
of types, a certain mixing of dimensions, and he is 
enabled to see it just because, happily, the blunder 
was not made or, if made, was not persisted in, for, 
if it had been made and persisted in, then the great 
and now familiar things of which it would have de- 
prived the world would not be here; we should not 
now be able even to imagine them, and so we could 
not now compute even roughly the tremendous mag- 
nitude of the blunder's disastrous consequences. Let 
the reader not deviate nor falter nor stagger here; 
let him shoulder the burden of the mighty argument 
and bear it to the goal. He easily perceives the truly 
appalling consequences that would have inevitably 
followed from the error of confusing types the 
error of mixing dimensions in the matter of lines 
and surfaces and solids, if that error had been 
committed and persisted in throughout the cen- 
turies; he can perceive those consequences just 
because the error was not made and hence the 
great things of which (had the blunder been made) 
it would have deprived the world are here, so that 


he can say: "Behold those splendid things the 
science of geometry and its manifold applications 
everywhere shining in human affairs imagine all of 
them gone, imagine the world if they had never been, 
and you will have a measure of the consequences that 
would have followed violation of the law of types, 
the law of dimensions, in the matter of lines, surfaces 
and solids." But, now, in regard to the exactly simi- 
lar error respecting the nature of man, the situation 
is reversed; for this blunder, unlike the other one, 
is not merely hypothetical; we have seen that it was 
actually committed and has been actually persisted in 
from time immemorial; not merely for years or for 
decades or for centuries but for centuries of centuries 
including our own day, it has lain athwart the course 
of human progress; age after age it has hampered 
and baulked the natural activity of the time-binding 
energies the civilization-producing energies of 
humanity. How are we to estimate its consequences? 
Let the reader keep in mind that the error is fun- 
damental a type-confusing blunder (like that sup- 
posed regarding geometric entities) ; let him reflect, 
moreover, that it affects, not merely one of our human 
concerns, but all of them, since it is an error regard- 
ing the center of them all regarding the very nature 
of man himself; and he will know, as well as any- 
thing can be known, that the consequences of the 
ages-old blunder have been and are very momentous 


and very terrible. Their measure is indeed beyond 
our power; we cannot describe them adequately, we 
cannot delineate their proportions, for we cannot 
truly imagine them ; and the reason is plain : it is that 
those advancements of civilization, those augmenta- 
tions of material and spiritual wealth, all of the 
glorious achievements of which the tragic blunder 
has deprived the world, are none of them here; they 
have not been produced; and so we cannot say, as in 
the other case: "Look upon these splendid treasures 
of bound-up time, imagine them taken away, and 
your sense of the appalling loss will give you the 
measure required." It is evident that the glories of 
which the misconceptions of human nature have de- 
prived manhood must long remain, perhaps forever, 
in the sad realm of dreams regarding great and noble 
things that might have been. 

I have said that the duty of examining the mis- 
conceptions imposes upon us four obligations. Three 
of these we have performed: we have disengaged the 
beliefs in question from the complicated tangle of 
opinions in which they have come down to us from 
remote antiquity; we have recognized the necessity 
and the duty of virtually stinging ourselves into an 
awareness of the fact that we have actually held 
them for true and that from time immemorial they 
have poured their virus into the heart of ethics, eco- 
nomics, politics and government throughout the 


world; we have seen not only that the beliefs are 
false but that their falseness is due to a blunder of 
the most fundamental kind the blunder of mixing 
dimensions or confusing types. As already said, the 
fourth one of the mentioned tasks is that of tracing, 
if we can, the blunder's deadly effects both in human 
history and in the present status of the world. We 
have just reached the conclusion that this task can- 
not be fully performed; for there can be no doubt, 
as we have seen, that, if the blunder had not been 
committed and persisted in, the world would now 
possess a civilization so far advanced, so rich in the 
spiritual fruits of time and toil, as to be utterly 
beyond our present power to conceive or imagine it. 
But, though we cannot perform the task fully, our 
plight is far from hopeless. The World War has 
goaded us into thinking as we never thought before. 
It has constrained us to think of realities and espe- 
cially to think of the supreme reality the reality 
of Man. That is why the great Catastrophe marks 
the close of humanity's childhood. The period has 
been long and the manner of its end is memorable 
forever a sudden, flaming, world-wide cataclysmic 
demonstration of fundamental ignorance human 
ignorance of human nature. It is just that tragic 
demonstration, brutal as an earthquake, pitiless as 
fate or famine, that gives us ground for future hope. 
It has forced us to think of realities and it is thought 


of reality that will heal the world. And so I say 
that these days, despite their fear and gloom, are the 
beginning of a new order in human affairs the order 
of permanent peace and swift advancement of human 
weal. For we know at length what human beings 
are, and the knowledge can be taught to men and 
women and children by home and school and church 
and press throughout the world; we know at length, 
and we can teach the world, that man is neither an 
animal nor a miraculous mixture of angel and beast; 
we know at length, and we can teach, that, through- 
out the centuries, these monstrous misconceptions 
have made countless millions mourn and that they 
are doing so to-day, for, though we cannot com- 
pute the good of which they have deprived mankind, 
we can trace the dark ramifications of their positive 
evil in a thousand ways ; we know at length, and we 
can teach, that man, though he is not an animal, 
is a natural being, having a definite place, a rank 
of his own, in the hierarchy of natural life; we know 
at length, and we can teach the world, that what 
is characteristic of the human class of life that 
which makes us human is the power to create 
material and spiritual wealth to beget the light of 
reasoned understanding to produce civilization it 
is the unique capacity of man for binding time, unit- 
ing past, present and future in a single growing 
reality charged at once with the surviving creations 


of the dead, with the productive labor of the living, 
with the rights and hopes of the yet unborn; we 
know at length, and we can teach, that the natural 
rate of human progress is the rate of a swiftly in- 
creasing exponential function of time ; we know, and 
we can teach, that what is good in present civiliza- 
tion all that is precious in it, sacred and holy is 
the fruit of the time-binding toil struggling blindly 
through the ages against the perpetual barrier of 
human ignorance of human nature; we know at 
length, we can teach, and the world will understand, 
that in proportion as we rid our ethics and social 
philosophy of monstrous misrepresentations of 
human nature, the time-binding energies of humanity 
will advance civilization in accordance with their 
natural law PR T , the forward-leaping function of 

Such knowledge and such teaching will inaugurate 
the period of humanity's manhood. It can be made 
an endless period of rapid developments in True 
civilization. All the developments must grow out 
of the true conception of human beings as constitut- 
ing the time-binding class of life, and so the work 
must begin with a campaign of education wide 
enough to embrace the world. The cooperation of 
all educational agencies the home, the school, the 
church, the press must be enlisted to make known 
the fundamental truth concerning the nature of man 


so that it shall become the guiding light and habit 
of men, women, and children everywhere. Gradual 
indeed but profound will be the transformations 
wrought in all the affairs of mankind, but especially 
and first of all in the so-called arts and sciences of 
ethics, economics, politics and government. 

The ethics of humanity's manhood will be neither 
"animal" ethics nor "supernatural" ethics. It will be 
a natural ethics based upon a knowledge of the laws 
of human nature. It will not be a branch of zoology, 
the ethics of tooth and claw, the ethics of profiteer- 
ing, the ethics of space-binding beasts fighting for "a 
place in the sun." It will be a branch of human- 
ology, a branch of Human Engineering; it will be a 
time-binding ethics, the ethics of the entirely natural 
civilization-producing energies of humanity. What- 
ever accords with the natural activity of those ener- 
gies will be right and good; whatever does not, will 
be wrong and bad. "Survival of the fittest" in the 
sense of the strongest is a space-binding standard, 
the ethical standard of beasts; in the ethics of 
humanity's manhood survival of the fittest will mean 
survival of the best in competitions for excellence, 
and excellence will mean time-binding excellence 
excellence in the production and right use of material 
and spiritual wealth excellence in science, in art, in 
wisdom, in justice, in promoting the weal and pro- 
tecting the rights both of the living and of the un- 


born. The ethics that arose in the dark period of 
humanity's childhood from the conception of human 
beings as mysterious unions of animality and divinity 
gave birth to two repulsive species of traffic traffic 
in men regarded as animals, fit to be slaves, and 
traffic in the "supernatural," in the sale of indul- 
gences in one form or another and the "divine wis- 
dom" of ignorant priests. It is needless to say that 
in the natural ethics of humanity's manhood those 
species of commerce will not be found. 

And what shall we say in particular of economics, 
of "industry," "business as usual," and the "finance" 
of "normalcy"? There lies before me an estab- 
lished handbook of Corporation Finance, by Mr. E. 
S. Mead, Ph.D. (Appleton, N. Y.), whose purpose 
is not that of adverse criticism but is that of showing 
the generally accepted "sound" bases for prosperous 
business. I can hardly do better than to ask the 
reader to ponder a few extracts from that work, 
showing the established, and amazing theories, for 
then I have only to say that in the period of humanity's 
manhood the moral blindness of such "principles," 
their space-binding spirit of calculating selfishness 
and greed, will be regarded with utter loathing as 
slavery is regarded to-day. Behold the picture : 

"Since the bondholder is solely interested in the security 
of his principal, and regular payment of his interest, and 
since both security and interest depend Upon the permanence 


of income, other things being equal the companies with the 
most stable earnings or a market . . . furnish the best 
security for bonds. Stability of earnings depends upon (i) 
the possession of a monopoly. . . . Monopoly is exclusive 
or dominant control over a market. The more complete 
this control, the more valuable is the monopoly. The advan- 
tage of monopoly lies in the fact that the prices of services 
or commodities are controlled by the producers (meaning 
owners Author), rather than by the consumer. . . . Mo- 
nopolies are of various origins. The most familiar are (i) 
franchises, the right to use public property for private pur- 
poses, for example, the furnishing of light, water and trans- 
portation, (2) control of sources of raw material . . ., (3) 
patents, . . ., (4) high cost of duplicating plant. ... In 
manufacturing industries, for example, those enterprises 
which produce raw materials and the necessities of life have 
a more stable demand. . . . Railroads furnish perhaps the 
best basis of bond issue because of the stability of the demand 
for the transportation service ... the high cost of dupli- 
cating the railroad plant, . . . enables them to fix their 
rates on freight and passenger traffic. . . . The security of 
the creditors is here the profitableness of the business which 
is carried on in the factory. Furthermore, a business is not 
an aggregate of physical property but consists of physical 
property buildings, boilers, machine tools plus an indus- 
trial opportunity, plus the organization and ability to oper- 
ate business." (Italics indicated by the author.) 

There we see the animal standards in their studied 
perfection. Comment would be superfluous. 

In the period of humanity's manhood, the so- 
called "science" of economics, the "dismal science" 
of political economy, will become a genuine science 
based upon the laws of the time-binding energies of 


humanity; it will become the light of Human Engi- 
neering promoter, guardian, and guide of human 
weal. For it will discover, and will teach that a 
human life, a time-binding life, is not merely a civi- 
lized life but a civilizing life; it will know and will 
teach that a civilizing life is a life devoted to the 
production of potential and kinetic use-values to the 
creation, that is, of material and spiritual wealth; 
it will know and will teach that wealth both mate- 
rial and spiritual wealth is a natural phenomenon 
offspring of the marriage of Time and human 
Toil; it will know and will teach that the wealth in 
the world at any given moment is almost wholly the 
inherited fruit of time and the labor of the dead; 
and so it will ask: To whom does the inheritance 
rightly belong? Does it of right belong to Smith 
and Brown? If so, why? Or does it of right belong 
to man to humanity? If so, why? And what does 
"humanity" include? Only the living, who are rela- 
tively few? Or both the living and unborn? The 
Economics of humanity's manhood will not only ask 
these questions but it will answer them and answer 
them aright. In seeking the answers, it will discover 
some obvious truths and many old words will acquire 
new meanings consistent with the time-binding nature 
of man. It will discover and will teach that the 
time-binders of a given generation are posterity and 
ancestry at once posterity of the dead, ancestry of 


all the generations to come ; it will discover and will 
teach that in this time-binding double relationship 
uniting past and future in a single living growing 
Reality, are to be found the obligations of time- 
binding ethics and the seat of its authority; economics 
will know and will teach that human posterity 
time-binding posterity can not inherit the fruits of 
time and dead men's toil as animals inherit the wild 
fruits of the earth, to fight about them and to devour 
them, but only as trustees for the generations to 
come; it will know and will teach that "capitalistic" 
lust to keep for SELF and "proletarian" lust to get 
for SELF are both of them space-binding lust ani- 
mal lust beneath the level of time-binding life. 
The economics of humanity's manhood will know and 
will teach that the characteristic energies of man as 
man are by nature civilizing energies, wealth-pro- 
ducing energies, time-binding energies, the peaceful 
energies of inventive mind, of growing knowledge 
and understanding and skill and light; it will know 
and will teach that these energies of existing men 
united with one billion six hundred million available 
"sun-man" powers united with the ten billion living 
"man-powers of the dead," if they be not wasted 
by ignorance and selfishness, by conflict and compe- 
tition characteristic of beasts, are more than suffi- 
cient to produce a high order of increasing pros- 


perity everywhere throughout the world; in the 
period of its manhood economics will discover and 
will teach that to produce world prosperity, cooper- 
ation not the fighting of man against man but 
the peaceful cooperation of all is both necessary and 
Sufficient; it will know and will teach that such coop- 
eration demands scientific leadership and a common 
aim; it will know, however, and will teach, for the 
lesson of Germany is plain, that scientific knowledge 
and a common aim are not alone sufficient; it will 
know and teach and all will understand that the 
common aim, the unifying principle, the basis of co- 
operation, cannot be the welfare of a family nor that 
of a province or a state or a race, but must be the 
welfare of all mankind, the prosperity of humanity, 
the weal of the world the peaceful production of 
Wealth without the destruction of War. 

In humanity's manhood, patriotism the love of 
country will not perish far from it it will grow 
to embrace the world, for your country and mine 
will be the world. Your "state" and mine will be 
the Human State a Cooperative Commonwealth 
of Man a democracy in fact and not merely in 
name. It will be a natural organic embodiment of 
the civilizing energies the wealth-producing ener- 
gies characteristic of the human class of life. Its 
larger affairs will be guided by the science and art 


of Human Engineering not by ignorant and graft- 
ing "politicians" but by scientific men, by honest 
men who know. 

Is it a dream? It is a dream, but the dream will 
come true. It is a scientific dream and science will 
make it a living reality. 

How is the thing to be done? No one can foresee 
all the details, but in general outline the process is 
clear. Violence is to be avoided. There must be a 
period of transition a period of adjustment. A 
natural first step would probably be the establish- 
ment of a new institution which might be called a 
Dynamic Department Department of Coordina- 
tion or a Department of Cooperation the name is 
of little importance, but it would be the nucleus of 
the new civilization. Its functions would be those 
of encouraging, helping and protecting the people 
in such cooperative enterprises as agriculture, manu- 
factures, finance, and distribution. 

The Department of Cooperation should include 
various sections, which might be as follows : 

(i) The Section of Mathematical Sociology or 
Humanoloay: composed of at least one sociologist, 
one biologist, one mechanical engineer, and one math- 
ematician. Their work would be the development 
of human engineering and mathematical sociology 
or humanology; promoting the progress of science; 
providing and supervising instruction in the theory 


of values and the rudiments of humanology for ele- 
mentary schools and the public at large. The mem- 
bers of the section would be selected by the appro- 
priate scientific societies for a term fixed by the se- 

(2) The Section of Mathematical Legislation: 
composed of (say) one lawyer, one mathematician, 
one mechanical engineer, selected as above. Their 
task would be to recommend legislation, to provide 
means for eliminating "Legalism" from the theory 
and practice of law, and to bring jurisprudence into 
accord with the laws of time-binding human nature 
and the changing needs of human society. Their 
legislative proposals, if ratified in a joint session 
of sections (i) and (2), would then be recom- 
mended to the appropriate legislative bodies. 

(3) The Educational Section: composed of two 
or three teachers, one sociologist, one mechani- 
cal engineer, one mathematician, selected as above. 
They would elaborate educational projects and revise 
school methods and books ; their decisions being sub- 
ject to the approval of the joint session of sections 
(i), (2), and (3). 

(4) The Cooperative Section: composed of 
mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, produc- 
tion engineers, expert bookkeepers, accountants, 
business managers, lawyers and other specialists in 
their respective lines. This section would be an "In- 


dustrial Red Cross" (Charles Ferguson) giving ex- 
pert advice when asked for by any cooperative 

(5) The Cooperative Banking Section: com- 
posed of financial experts, sociologists, and mathema- 
ticians ; its task being to help with expert advice new 
cooperative people's banks. 

(6) The Promoters' Section: composed of en- 
gineers whose duty would be to study all of the 
latest scientific facts, collect data, and elaborate 
plans. Those plans would be published, and no pri- 
vate person, but only cooperative societies, would be 
permitted by law to use them. The department 
would also study and give advice respecting the gen- 
eral conditions of the market and the needs in the 
various lines of production. This section would reg- 
ulate the duplication of production. 

(7) The Farming Section: composed of special- 
ists in scientific and cooperative agriculture. 

(8) The Foreign Section: for inter-cooperative 
foreign relations. 

(9) The Commercial Section. 

(10) The News Section: to edit a large daily 
paper giving true, uncolored news with a special 
supplement relating to progress in the work of 
Human Engineering. This paper would give daily 
news about the whole cooperative movement, mar- 
kets, etc., etc. 


All men selected to the places for this work 
should be the very best men in the nation. They 
should be well paid to enable them to give their full 
energy and time to their duties. All the selections 
for this work should be made in the same manner 
as mentioned above through proven merits not 
clever oratory. Such appointments should be con- 
sidered the highest honor that a country can offer 
to its citizens. Every selection should be a demon- 
stration that the person selected was a person of the 
highest attainments in the field of his work. 

The outline of this plan is vague; it aims merely 
at being suggestive. Its principal purpose is to 
accentuate the imperative necessity of establishing a 
national time-binding agency a Dynamic Depart- 
ment for stimulating, guiding and guarding the 
civilizing energies, the wealth producing energies, 
the time-binding energies, in virtue of which human 
beings are human. For then and only then human 
welfare, unretarded by monstrous misconceptions of 
human nature, by vicious ethics, vicious economics 
and vicious politics, will advance peacefully, contin- 
uously, and rapidly, under the leadership of human 
engineering, happily and without fear, in accord with 
the exponential law the natural law of the time- 
binding energies of Man. 



"In Europe we know that an age is dying. Here it 
would be easy to miss the signs of coming changes, but 
I have little doubt that it will come. A realization of 
the aimlessness of life lived to labor and to die, having 
achieved nothing but avoidance of starvation, and the 
birth of children also doomed to the weary treadmill, 
has seized the minds of millions." 
Sir Auckland Geddes, British Ambassador to the U. S. 1920. 

TN conclusion let me say very briefly, as I said in 
the beginning, that this little book has aimed to 
be only a sketch. The Problem of Life is old. I 
have endeavored to approach it afresh, with a new 
method, in a new spirit, from a new point of view. 
The literature of the subject is vast. It displays 
great knowledge and skill. Much of it is fitted to 
inform and to inspire such as really read with a 
genuine desire to understand. Its weakness is due 
to the absence of a true conception of what human 
beings are. That is what I miss in it and it is that 
lack of fundamental and central thought that I have 
striven to supply. If I have succeeded in that, I 
have no fear all else will follow quickly, inevitably, 
as a matter of course. For a fundamental concep- 
tion, once it is formed and expressed, has a strange 
power the power of enlisting the thought and co- 



operation of many minds. And no conception can 
have greater power in our human world than a true 
conception of the nature of Man. For that most 
important of truths the times are ripe; the world 
is filled with the saddest of memories, with gloom* 
forebodings and fear. Without the truth in this 
matter, there can be no rational hope history must 
go on in its dismal course; but with the truth, there 
is not only hope but certitude that the old order has 
passed and that humanity's manhood dates from the 
present day. That I have here presented the truth 
in this matter the true conception of the human 
class of life I have personally no doubt; and I have 
no doubt that that conception is to be the base, the 
guide, the source of light, of a new civilization. 
Whether I am mistaken or not, time will decide. I 
feel as Buckle felt in writing his History of Civiliza- 

"Whether or not I have effected anything of real value . . . 
is a question for competent judges to decide. Of this, at 
least, I feel certain, that whatever imperfections may be 
observed, the fault consists, not in the method proposed, but 
in the extreme difficulty of any single man putting into full 
operation all the parts of so vast a scheme. It is on this 
point, and on this alone, that I feel the need of great indul- 
gence. But, as to the plan itself, I have no misgivings. Of 
defects in its execution I am not unconscious. I can only 
plead the immensity of the subject, the shortness of a single 
life and the imperfection of every single enterprise. I, there- 
fore, wish this work to be estimated, not according to the 


finish of its separate parts, but according to the way in which 
those parts have been fused into a complete and symmetrical 
whole. This, in an undertaking of such novelty and magni- 
tude, I have a right to expect, and I would moreover, add, 
that if the reader has met with opinions adverse to his own, 
he should remember, that his views are, perhaps, the same 
as those which I too once held, and which I have abandoned, 
because, after a wider range of study, I found them unsup- 
ported by solid proof, subversive of the interest of Man, and 
fatal to the progress of his knowledge. To examine the 
notions in which we have been educated, and to turn aside 
from those which will not bear the test, is a task so painful, 
that they who shrink from the sufferings should pause before 
they reproach those by whom the suffering is undergone. . . . 
Conclusions arrived at in this way are not to be overturned 
by stating that they endanger some other conclusions; nor 
can they be even affected by allegation against their supposed 
tendency. The principles which I advocate are based upon 
distinct arguments supported by well ascertained facts. The 
only points, therefore, to be ascertained, are, whether the 
arguments are fair, and whether the facts are certain. If 
these two conditions have been obeyed, the principles follow 
by an inevitable inference." 

And why have I sought throughout to follow the 
spirit of mathematics? Because I have been deal- 
ing with ideas and have desired, above all things else, 
to be right and clear. Ideas have a character of their 
own they are right or wrong independently of oar 
hopes and passions and will. In the connection of 
ideas there is an unbreakable thread of destiny. That 
is why in his Mathematical Philosophy Professor 
Keyser has truly said: 


"Mathematics is the study of Fate not fate in a physical 
sense, but in the sense of the binding thread that connects 
thought with thought and conclusions with their premises. 
Where, then, is our freedom? What do you love? Paint- 
ing? Poetry? Music? The muses are their fates. Whoso 
loves them is free. Logic is the muse of Thought." 

No doubt mathematics is truly impersonal in 
method; too impersonal maybe to please the senti- 
mentalists before they take the time to think; math- 
ematical analysis of life phenomena elevates our 
point of view above passion, above selfishness in any 
form, and, therefore, it is the only method which can 
tell us genuine truths about ourselves. Spinosa even 
in the iyth Century had well realized this fact and 
although imperfect in many ways, his was an effort in 
the right direction and this quoted conclusion may 
well be a conclusion for ourselves in the 2Oth century : 

"The truth might forever have remained hid from the 
human race, if mathematics, which looks not to the final cause 
of figures, but to their essential nature and the properties 
involved in it, had not set another type of knowledge before 
them. . . . When I turned my mind to this subject, I did 
not propose to myself any novel or strange aim, but simply 
to demonstrate by certain and indubitable reason, those things 
which agree best with practice. And in order that I might 
enquire into the matters of the science with the same free- 
dom of mind with which we are wont to treat lines and 
surfaces in mathematics; I determined not to laugh or to 
weep over the actions of men, but simply to understand them ; 
and to contemplate their affections and passions, such as love, 
hate, anger, envy, arrogance, pity and all other disturbances 


of soul not as vices of human nature, but as properties per- 
taining to it in the same way as heat, cold, storm, thunder 
pertain to the nature of the atmosphere. For these, though 
troublesome, are yet necessary, and have certain causes 
through which we may come to understand them, and thus, 
by contemplating them in their truth, gain for our minds 
much joy as by the knowledge of things that are pleasing to 
the senses." 

If only this little book will initiate the scientific 
study of Man, I shall be happy; for then we may 
confidently expect a science and art that will know 
how to direct the energies of man to the advance- 
ment of human weal. 

What else? Many topics have not even been 
broached. Time-binding energy what may it not 
achieve in course of the aeons to come? What light 
may it not yet throw upon such fundamental phe- 
nomena as Space, Time, Infinity, and so on? What, 
if any, are the limits of Time-binding? In it are 
somehow involved all the higher functions of mind. 
Is Time identical with Intelligence? Is either of 
them the other's cause? Is Time in the Cosmos or 
is the latter in the former? Is the Cosmos intelli- 
gent? Many no doubt and marvelous are the fields 
which the scientific study of man will open for 



TPHE purpose of this appendix is to give an expression of 
some new ideas which evolve directly out of the fact 
that humans are time-binders and which may serve as sug- 
gestions for the foundation of scientific psychology. The 
problem is of exceeding difficulty to give expression to in any 
form and therefore much more difficult to express in any 
exact or correct form, and so I beg the reader's patience in 
regard to the language because some of the ideas are in them- 
selves correct and sometimes very suggestive in spite of the 
language used. I am particularly interested that mathema- 
ticians, physicists and metaphysicians should read it carefully, 
forgive me the form, and look into the suggestions, because 
scientific psychology if such a science is to exist, would by 
necessity have to be a branch of physics. I particularly beg 
the mathematicians and physicists not to discard this appendix 
with too hasty a judgment of "Oh! metaphysics," and also 
the metaphysicians not to do the same with an equally hasty 
judgment "Oh! mathematics." I hope that if this appendix 
is sympathetically understood, mathematicians and physicists 
will be moved to investigate the problem. If mathematicians 
and physicists would be more tolerant toward metaphysics 
and if metaphysicians would be moved to study mathematics, 
both would find tremendous fields to work in. 

Some scientists are very pedantic and therefore intolerant 
in their pedantry and they may say "the fellow should learn 
first how to express himself and then ask our attention." My 
answer is that the problems involved are too pressing, too 
vital, too fundamental for humankind, to permit me to delay 



for perhaps long years before I shall be able to present the 
subject in a correct and satisfactory form, and also that the 
problems involved cover too vast a field for a single man 
to work it conclusively. It seems best to give the new ideas 
to the public in a suggestive form so that many people may 
be led to work on them more fully. 

The old word "metaphysics" is an illegitimate child of 
ignorance and an unnecessary word in the scientific study of 
nature. Every phenomenon of nature can be classed and 
studied in physics or chemistry or mathematics; the problem, 
therefore, is not in any way supernatural or superphysical, 
but belongs rather to an unknown or an undeveloped branch 
of physics. The problem, therefore, may be not that of some 
new science, but rather that of a new branch of mathematics, 
or physics, or chemistry, etc., or all combined. 

It is pathetic that only after many aeons of human exist- 
ence the dimensionality of man has been discovered and his 
proper status in nature has been given by the definition 
of "time-binder." The old metaphysics, in spite of its being 
far from exact, accomplished a great deal. What prevented 
metaphysics from achieving more was its use of unmathe- 
matical method, or, to be more explicit, its failure to under- 
stand the importance of dimensions. Metaphysics used words 
and conceptions of multi-dimensional meanings which of ne- 
cessity resulted in hopeless confusion, in "a talking" about 
words, in mere verbalism. An example will serve to make 
this clear. If we were to speak of a cow, a man, an auto- 
mobile, and a locomotive as "pullers," and if we were not 
to use any other names in connection with them, what would 
happen? If we characterized these things or beings, by one 
common characteristic, namely, "to pull," havoc would be 
introduced into our conceptions and in practical life; we 
would try to milk an automobile or we would try to extract 
gasoline from a cow, or look for a screw in a man, or we 
would speculate about any or all of these things. Too obvi- 


ously nonsensical but exactly the same thing happens, in a 
much more subtle way, when we use such words as "life in 
a crystal" or "memory in animals"; we are thus mentally 
making a mistake no less nonsensical than the talk of "milk- 
ing an automobile" would be. Laymen are baffled by the 
word dimension. They imagine that dimensions are applic- 
able only to space, which is three dimensional, but they are 
mistaken; a moving object is four-dimensional that is, it 
has three dimensions as any object at rest, but, when the 
object is moving, a fourth dimension is necessary to give its 
position at any one instant. We see, therefore, that a mov- 
ing body has four dimensions, and so on. As a matter of 
fact, scientific psychology will very much need mathematics, 
but a special humanized mathematics. Can this be pro- 
duced? It seems to me that it can. 

It is a well known fact that experimental sciences bring 
us to face facts which require further theoretical elaboration ; 
in this way experimental sciences are a permanent source of 
inspiration to mathematicians because new facts bring about 
the need of new methods of analysis. 

In this book a new and experimental fact has been dis- 
closed and analysed. It is the fact that humanity is a time- 
binding class of life where the time-binding capacity or the 
time-binding ENERGY is the highest function of humanity, 
including all the so-called mental, spiritual, will, etc., powers. 
In using the words mental, spiritual, and will powers, I de- 
liberately accept and use them in the popular, ordinary sense 
without further analysing them. 

Once the word and concept Time enters, the ground for 
analysis and reasoning at once becomes very slippery. Mathe- 
maticians, physicists, etc., may feel that the expression is just 
a "well adapted one," and they may not be very much 
inclined to look closer into it or attentively to analyse it. 
Theologians and metaphysicians probably will speculate a 
great deal about it vaguely, with undefined terms and inco- 


herent ideas with incoherent results; which will not lead us 
toward a scientific or true solution, but will keep us away 
from the discovery of truth. 

In the meantime two facts remain facts: namely, mathe- 
maticians and physicists have almost all agreed with Min- 
kowski "that space by itself and time by itself, are mere 
shadows, and only a kind of blend of the two exists in its 
own right." The other fact psychological fact is that time 
exists psychologically by itself, undefined and not understood. 
One chief difficulty is always that humans have to sit in 
judgment upon their own case. The psychological time as 
such, is our own human time; scientific time as such, is also 
our own human time. Which one of them is the best con- 
cept which one more nearly corresponds to the truth about 
"time"? What is time (if any) anyway? Until now we 
have gone from "Cosmos" to "Bios," from "Bios" to 
"Logos," now we are confronted with the fact that "Logos" 
Intelligence and Time-binding are dangerously near to 
akin to each other, or may be identical. Do we in this way 
approach or go back to "Cosmos"? Such are the crucial 
questions which arise out of this new concept of Man. One 
fact must be borne in mind, that "the principles of dynamics 
appeared first to us, as experimental truths ; but we have been 
obliged to use them as definitions. It is by definition that 
force is equal to the product of mass by acceleration, or that 
action is equal to reaction." (The Foundation of Science, 
by Henri Poincare) ; and mathematics also has its whole 
foundation in a few axioms, "self evident," but psychological 
facts. It must be noted that the time-binding energy the 
higher or highest energies of man (one of its branches any- 
way, for sake of discrimination let us call it "M") when it 
works properly, that is, mathematically, does not work 
psychologically but works ABSTRACTLY: the higher the ab- 
straction the less there is of the psychological element and 
the more there is, so to say, of the pure, impersonal time- 


binding energy (M). The definition of a man as a time- 
binder a definition based on facts suggests many reflec- 
tions. One of them is the possibility that one of the func- 
tions of the time-binding energy in its pure form, in the 
highest abstraction (M), works automatically machine- 
like, as it were, shaping correctly the product of its activity, 
but whether truly is another matter. Mathematics does not 
presume that its conclusions are true, but it does assert that 
its conclusions are correct; that is the inestimable value of 
mathematics. This becomes a very comprehensive fact if we 
approach and analyse the mathematical processes as some 
branch (M) of the time-binding process, which they are; 
then this process at once becomes impersonal and cosmic, 
because of the time-binding involved in it, no matter what 
time is (if there is such a thing as time). 

Is the succession of cosmos, bios, logos, time-binding taking 
us right back to cosmos again ? Now if we put psychological 
axioms into the time-binding apparatus, it will thrash out 
the results correctly, but whether the results are true is 
another question. 

To be able to talk about these problems I have to intro- 
duce three new definitions, which are introduced only for 
practical purposes. It may happen that after some rewording 
these definitions may become scientific. 

I will try to define "truth" and for this purpose I will 
divide the concept "truth" into three types: 

(1) Psychological, or private, or relative truth, by which 
I will mean such conceptions of the truth as any one 
person possesses, but different from other types of truth 
(i, 2, -On)- 

(2) Scientific truth (as), by which I will mean a psycho- 
logical truth when it is approved by the time-binding facul- 
ties or apparatus in the present stage of our development. 
This scientific truth represents the "bound-up-time" in our 
present knowledge; and finally, 


(3) The absolute truth, which will be the final definition 
of a phenomenon based upon the final knowledge of primal 
causation valid in infinity (a x ). 

For simplicity's sake I will use the signs a\, 2 . . . B for the 
"psychological," "private," or "relative" truths, between 
which, for the moment, I will not discriminate. 
a s i, s2 -an wu "l be used for scientific truths, and finally 
a^ for the absolute truth valid in infinity. 

To make it easier to explain, I will illustrate the sug- 
gestions by an example. Let us suppose that the human time- 
binding capacities or energies in the organic chemistry cor- 
respond to radium in the inorganic chemistry ; being of course 
of different dimensions and of absolutely different character. 
It may happen, for it probably is so, that the complex time- 
binding energy has many different stages of development and 
different kinds of "rays" A, B, C, . . . M. . . . 

Let us suppose that the so-called mental capacities are the 
M rays of the time-binding energy; the "spiritual" capacities, 
the A rays; the "will" powers, the B rays; and so on. Psycho- 
logical truths will then be a function of all rays together, 
namely A B C . . . M . . . or / (A B C . . . M . . . ), 
the character of any "truth" in question will largely depend 
upon which of these elements prevail. 

If it were possible to isolate completely from the other 
rays the "mental" process the "logos" the M rays and 
have a complete abstraction (which in the present could only 
be in mathematics), then the work of M could be compared 
to the work of an impersonal machine which always gives 
the same correctly shaped product no matter what is the 
material put into it. 

It is a fact that mathematics is correct impersonal pas- 
sionless. Again, as a matter of fact, all the basic axioms 
which underlie mathematics are "psychological axioms"; 
therefore it may happen that these "axioms" are not of the 
dy, type but are of the / (A B C . . . ) personal type and 


this may be why mathematics cannot account for psychological 
facts. If psychology is to be an exact science it must be 
mathematical in principle. And, therefore, mathematics must 
find a way to embrace psychology. Here I will endeavor to 
outline a way in which this can be done. To express it 
correctly is more than difficult : I beg the mathematical reader 
to tolerate the form and look for the sense or even the feel- 
ings in what I attempt to express. To make it less shocking 
to the ear of the pure mathematician, I will use for the 
"infinitesimals" the words "very small numbers," for the 
"finite" the words "normal numbers" and for the "trans- 
finite" the words "very great numbers." Instead of using 
the word "number" I will sometimes use the word "magni- 
tude" and under the word "infinity" I will understand the 
meaning as "limitless." The base of the whole of mathe- 
matics or rather the starting point of mathematics was 
"psychological truths," axioms concerning normal numbers, 
and magnitudes that were tangible for the senses. Here to 
my mind is to be found the kernel of the whole trouble. The 
base of mathematics was f (A B C . . . M . , . ) ; the work, 
or the development, of mathematics is / (M) ; this is the 
reason for the "ghosts" in the background of mathematics. 
The / (M) evolved from this / (A B C . . . M . . .) base 
a wonderful abstract theory absolutely correct for the normal, 
the very small, and for the very great numbers. But the 
rules which govern the small numbers, the normal, or psycho- 
logical numbers, and the great numbers, are not the same. 
As a matter of fact, in the meantime, the physical world, 
the psychological world, is composed exclusively of very great 
numbers and of very small magnitudes (atoms, electrons, 
etc.). It seems to me that, if we want really to understand 
the world and man, we shall have to start from the begin- 
ning, from O, then take the next very small number as the first 
finite or "normal number" ; then the old finites or the normal 
numbers would become very great numbers and the old very 


great numbers would become the very great of the second 
order and so on. Such transposed mathematics would become 
psychological and philosophic mathematics and mathematical 
philosophy would become philosophic mathematics. The 
immediate and most vital effect would be, that the start 
would be made not somewhere in the middle of the mag- 
nitudes but from the beginning, or from the limit "zero," 
from the "O" from the intrinsic "to be or not to be" 
and the next to it would be the very first small magnitude, 
the physical and therefore psychological continuum (I use 
the words physical continuum in the way Poincare used them) 
would become a mathematical continuum in this new philo- 
sophic mathematics. This new branch of philosophic, psycho- 
logical mathematics would be absolutely rigorous, correct and 
true in addition to which, maybe, it would change or enlarge 
and make humanly tangible for the layman, the concept of 
numbers, continuum, infinity, space, time and so on. Such 
a mathematics would be the mathematics for the time-binding 
psychology. Mathematical philosophy is the highest phi- 
losophy in existence; nevertheless, it could be changed to a 
still higher order in the way indicated here and become philo- 
sophic or psychological mathematics. This new science, of 
course, would not change the ordinary mathematics for 
ordinary purposes. It would be a special mathematics for the 
study of Man dealing only with the "natural finites" (the 
old infinitesimals) and great numbers of different orders 
(including the normal numbers), but starting from a real, 
common base from O, and next to it very small number, 
which is a common tangible base for psychological as well 
as analytical truths. 

This new philosophic mathematics would eliminate the 
concept of "infinitesimals" as such, which is an artificial con- 
cept and is not as a concept an element of Nature. The so- 
called infinitesimals are Nature's real, natural finites. In 
mathematics the infinitesimals were an analytical an "M" 


time-binding necessity, because of our starting point. I 
repeat once again that this transposition of our starting point 
would not affect the normal mathematics for normal pur- 
poses; it would build rather a new philosophic mathematics 
rigorously correct where analytical facts would be also psy- 
chological facts. This new mathematics would not only give 
correct results but also true results. Keeping in mind both 
conceptions of time, the scientific time and the psychological 
time, we may see that the human capacity of "Time-binding" 
is a very practical one and that this time-binding faculty is a 
functional name and definition for what we broadly mean 
by human "intelligence"; which makes it obvious that time 
(in any understanding of the term) is somehow very closely 
related to intelligence the mental and spiritual activities 
of man. All we know about "time" will explain to us a 
great deal about Man, and all we know about Man will 
explain to us a great deal about time, if we consider facts 
alone. The "ghosts" in the background will rapidly vanish 
and become intelligible facts for philosophic mathematics. 
The most vital importance, nevertheless, is that taking zero 
as the limit and the next to it very small magnitude for the 
real starting point, it will give us a mathematical science from 
a natural base where correct formulas will be also true for- 
mulas and will correspond to psychological truths. 

We have found that man is an exponential function where 
time enters as an exponent. If we compare the formula for 
organic growth y=e kt , with the formula "P R T ," we see 
that they are of the same type and the law of organic growth 
applies to the human time-binding energy. We see, too, that 
the time-binding energy is also "alive" and multiplying in 
larger and larger families. The formula for the decompos- 
ing of radium is the same only the exponent is negative 
instead of positive. This fact is indeed very curious and sug- 
gestive. Procreation, the organic growth, is also some func- 
tion of time. I call "time-linking" for the sake of dif- 


ference. Whether the energy of procreation or that of 
"time-linking" can be accounted for in units of chemical 
energy taken up in food, I do not know. Not so with the 
mind this "time-binding," higher exponential energy, "able 
to direct basic powers." If we analyse this energy, free from 
any speculation, we will find that this higher energy which 
is somehow directly connected with "time" no matter what 
time is is able to produce, by transformation or by draw- 
ing on other sources of energy, new energies unknown 
to nature. Thus the solar energy transformed into coal 
is, for instance, transformed into the energy of the drive 
of a piston, or the rotary energy in a steam engine, and 
so on. It is obvious that no amount of chemical energy 
in food can account for such an energy as the time-binding 
energy. There is only one supposition left, namely, that the 
time-binding apparatus has a source for its tremendous energy 
in the transformation of organic atoms, and what is very 
characteristic the results are time-binding energies. 

This supposition is almost a certainty because it seems to 
be the only possible supposition to account for that energy. ' 
This supposition, which seems to be the only supposition, 
would bring us to face striking facts, namely, the transfor- 
mation of organic atoms, which means a direct drawing upon 
the cosmic energy; and this cosmic energy time and in- 
telligence are somehow connected if not indeed equivalent. 
Happily these things can be verified in scientific laboratories. 
Radium was discovered only a few years ago and is still 
very scarce, but the results for science and life are already 
tremendous because scientific methods were applied in the 
understanding and use of it. We did not use any zoological 
or theological methods, but just direct, correct and scientific 
methods. There is no scarcity in "human radium," but, to 
my knowledge, physicists have never attempted to study this 
energy from that point of view. I am confident that, if once 
they start, there will be results in which all the so-called 


"supernatural, spiritual, psychic" phenomena, such as are not 
fakes, will become scientifically understood and will be con- 
sciously utilized. Now they are mostly wasted or only 
played with. It may happen that the science of Man as 
the science of time-binding will disclose to us the inner and 
final secrets the final truth of nature, valid in infinity. 

It is very difficult to give in such a book as this an ade- 
quate list of the literature which may help to orient the 
reader in a general way in the great advance science has 
made in the last few years. This book is a pioneer book in 
its own way, and so there are no books dealing directly with 
its subject. There are two branches of science and one art 
which are fundamental for the further development of the 
subject; these two sciences are (i) Mathematical philosophy 
and (2) Scientific biology, the art is the art of creative engi- 

In mathematical philosophy there are to my knowledge only 
four great mathematical writers who treat the subject as a 
distinct science. They are two English scientists, Bertrand 
Russell and A. N. Whitehead; one Frenchman, Henri Poin- 
care (deceased) ; and one American, Professor C. J. Keyser. 
Messrs. Russell and Whitehead approach the problems from 
a purely logical point of view and therein lies the peculiar 
value of their work. Henri Poincare was a physicist (as 
well as a mathematician) and, therefore, approaches the prob- 
lems somewhat from a physicist's point of view, a circum- 
stance giving his philosophy its particular value. Professor 
Keyser approaches the problems from both the logical and 
the warmly human points of view ; in this is the great human 
and practical value of his work. 

These four scientists are unique in their respective elabora- 
tions and elucidations of mathematical philosophy. It is not 
for me to advise the reader what selections to make, for if 
a thorough knowledge of the subject is desired the reader 
should read all these books, but not all readers are willing 


to make that effort toward clear thinking (which in the 
meantime will remain of the highest importance in science). 
Some readers will wish to select for themselves and to facili- 
tate their selection I will lay out a "Menu" of this intellectual 
feast by giving in some cases the chapter heads. 

For many temporary reasons I was not able, before going 
into print, to give a fuller list of the writings of those four 
unique men; but there is no stroke of their pen but which 
should be read with great attention besides which there is 
a very valuable literature about their work. 

(i) The purely mathematical foundation: 


"The Principles of Mathematics." Cambridge Uni- 
versity, 1903. 

(I am not giving any selections from the contents of 
this book because this book should, without doubt, 
be read by every one interested in mathematical 

"The Problems of Philosophy." H. Holt & Co., N. Y., 

"Our Knowledge of the External World, as a Field for 
Scientific Method in Philosophy." Chicago, 1914. 

"Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy." Macmillan, 
, N.Y. 

Selection from contents: 

Definition of number. The Definition of order. 
Kinds of relations. Infinite cardinal numbers. Infi- 
nite series and ordinals. Limits and continuity. 
The axiom of infinity and logical types. Classes. 
Mathematics and logic. 

"Mysticism and Logic." Longmans Green & Co. 1919. 

N. Y. 

Selection from contents: 

Mathematics and the metaphysicians. On scientific 
method in philosophy. The ultimate constituents 
of matter. On the notion of cause. 



"An Introduction to Mathematics." Henry Holt & Co. 
1911. N.Y. 

"The Organization of Thought Educational and Scienti- 
fic." London, 1917. 
Selections from contents: 

The principles of mathematics in relation to element- 
ary teaching. The organization of thought. The 
anatomy of some scientific ideas. Space, time, and 

"An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural 

Knowledge." Cambridge, 1919. 
Selection from contents: 

The traditions of science. The data of science. The 
method of extensive abstraction. The theory of 

"The Concept of Nature." Cambridge, 1920. 
Selection from contents: 

Nature and thought. Time. The method of exten- 
sive abstraction. Space and motion. Objects. The 
ultimate physical concepts. 

"Principia Mathematical' By A. N. Whitehead and 

Bertrand Russell. Cambridge, 1910-1913. 
This monumental work stands alone. "As a work 
of constructive criticism it has never been surpassed. 
To every one and especially to philosophers and men 
of natural science, it is an amazing revelation of how 
the familiar terms with which they deal plunge their 
roots far into the darkness beneath the surface of 
common sense. It is a noble monument to the criti- 
cal spirit of science and to the idealism of our time." 

"Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking." C. J. Keyser. 

(2) The physicist's point of view: 


"The Foundations of Science." The Science Press, 

N. Y., 1913. 

Selection from contents: 
I. Science and hypothesis. Number and magnitude. 


Space. Force. Nature. II. The value of science. 
The mathematical sciences. The physical sciences. 
The objective value of science. III. Science and 
method. Science and the scientist. Mathematical rea- 
soning. The new mechanics. Astronomic science. 

(3) The human, civilizing, practical life, point of view: 


"Science and Religion: The Rational and the Super- 
rational." The Yale University Press. 

"The New Infinity and the Old Theology." The Yale 
University Press. 

"The Human Worth of Rigorous Thinking." Essays 
and Addresses. Columbia University Press, 1916. 
Selection from contents: 

The human worth of rigorous thinking. The human 
significance of mathematics. The walls of the world; 
or concerning the figure and the dimensions of the 
Universe of space. The universe and beyond. The 
existence of the hypercosmic. The axiom of infinity: 
A new presupposition of thought. Research in Ameri- 
can Universities. Mathematical productivity in the 
United States. 

"Mathematical Philosophy, the Study of Fate and Free- 
dom. Lectures for Educated Laymen." Forth- 
coming Book. 

Selection from contents of general interest. 
The mathematical obligations of philosophy. Human- 
istic and industrial education. Logic the muse of 
thought. Radiant aspects of an over-world. Veri- 
fiers and falsifiers. Significance and nonsense. 
Distinction of logical and psychological. A diamond 
test of harmony. Distinction of doctrine and method. 
Theoretical and practical doubt. Mathematical 
philosophy in the role of critic. A world un criticised 
the garden of the devil. "Supersimian" Wisdom. 
Autonomous truth and autonomous falsehood. Other 
Varieties of truth and untruth. Mathematics as the 
study of fate and freedom. The prototype of rea- 
soned discourse often disguised as in the Declaration 
of Independence, the Constitution of the United 


States, the Origin of Species, the Sermon on the Mount. 
Nature of mathematical transformation. No trans- 
formation, no thinking. Transformation law essen- 
tially psychological, Relation function and trans- 
formation as three aspects of one thing. Its study, 
the common enterprise of science. The static and 
the dynamic worlds. The problem of time and 
kindred problems. Importation of time and sup- 
pression of time as the classic devices of sciences. 
The nature of invariance. The ages-old problem of 
permanence and change. The quest of what abides 
in a fluctuant world as the binding thread of human 
history. The tie of comradeship among the enter- 
prises of human spirit. The concept of a group. 
The notion simply exemplified in many fields, is 
"Mind" a group. The philosophy of the cosmic 
year. Limits and limit processes omnipresent as 
ideals and idealization, in all thought and human 
aspiration. Ideals the flint of reality. Mathemati- 
cal infinity, its dynamic and static aspects. Need of 
history of the Imperious concept. The role of infinity 
in a mighty poem. Meaning of dimensionality. 
Distinction of imagination and conception. Logical 
existence and sensuous existence. Open avenues to 
unimaginable worlds. The theory of logical types. 
A supreme application of it to definition of man, and 
the science of human welfare. The psychology of 
mathematics and the mathematics of psychology. 
Both of them in their infancy. Consequent retard- 
ation of science. The symmetry of thought. The 
asymmetry of imagination. Science and engineering. 
Science as engineering in preparation. Engineering 
as science in action. Mathematics the guide of the 
engineer. Engineering the guide of humanity. Hu- 
manity the civilizing or Time-Binding class of life. 
Qualities essential to engineering leadership. The 
ethics of the art. The engineer as educator, as 
scientist, as philosopher, as psychologist, as economist, 
as statesman, as mathematical thinker as a Man. 


TTHE life of one man is short, and to very few is it given 
to achieve much in their lifetime. Extensive achievements 
are made almost entirely by many men taking up the work 
done by a discoverer. In such a case, we arrive at a com- 
plete "truth," not by the production of one man but by a 
chain of men, but the initial discovery not only has to be 
produced but correctly defined before it can be used and 
that is the important point to be made. What we do not 
realize is the tremendous amount of mental work that is lost 
by an incorrect use of words. 

Human thought that unique, subtle and yet most ener- 
getic phenomenon of nature is in the main wantonly wasted, 
because we do not use, or take pains to use, suitable lan- 
guage ; at the same time, false definitions lead to consequences 
not merely wasteful but positively harmful. When ideas and 
facts are falsely defined, they tend to bring us to false con- 
clusions, and false conclusions lead us in wrong directions, 
and life and knowledge greatly suffer in consequence. Our 
progress is not a well ordered pursuit after truth, as pure 
chance plays too large a part in it. 

Until lately, logic was supposed to be the science of correct 
thinking, but modern thought has progressed so far that the 
old logic is not able to handle the great accumulated volume 
the great complicated mass of existing ideas and facts and 
so we are forced to look for another instrument much more 
expedient and powerful. There is no need to establish a 
new science to replace logic; we simply have to look closer 



into the sciences at hand and realize the fact, which was 
with us all the time, namely, that mathematics and mathe- 
matical reasoning is nothing else than the true logic of nature 
nature's universal tongue the one means of expression that 
is the same for all peoples. This is not a play on words, 
it is a fact which, after investigation, everybody must admit. 
Everybody who wants to think logically must think mathe- 
matically or give up any pretense of correct thinking there 
is no escape and all who refuse to investigate the justice of 
this statement put themselves outside the pale of logically 
thinking people. The application of rigorous thinking to life 
will even revolutionize scientific methods by the introduction 
of right definitions, correct classifications, just language, and 
so will lead to trustworthy results. Very probably all our 
doctrines and creeds will have to be revised; some rejected, 
some rectified, some broadened; bringing about unanimity 
of all sciences and thus greatly increasing their effectiveness 
in the pursuit of truth. This application of mathematics to 
life will even revolutionize mathematics itself. In App. I 
it is suggested tentatively how this may be accomplished. 

As the seemingly ultimate and highest experimentally 
known energy is the human time-binding energy, this new 
concept may lead to a change in our present concepts of 
matter, space and time, in much the same way as the dis- 
covery of radium has affected them. This problem can be 
solved only by scientific experiments with the time-binding 

In many, even in most, of the cases, the analysis of these 
phenomena presents great technical difficulty, but why con- 
fuse our minds by being afraid of, or being a slave of words? 
If instead of calling wine wine, we called it by its chemical 
formula, would this, in any way, change the quality of wine? 
Of course not. All the "qualities" will remain because they 
are facts, and cannot be altered by words. 

A most pathetic picture of the havoc and chaos which 


wrong use of words brings into life and science is exhibited 
in all fields of thought by the endless and bitter fighting over 
words not well defined. Mathematics has been able to make 
its most stupendous achievements because of its method of 
exact analysis of the continuum, dimensions, classes, rela- 
tions, functions, transfinite numbers, etc., and also of space 
and time. Hitherto, not all of these conceptions in their 
sharply defined form have had direct application to our daily 
life or to our world conception. The thoughts expressed in 
App. I may suggest this "missing link" connecting mathe- 
matics more intimately with life. 

Modern science knows that all energies can be somehow 
transformed from one kind to another and that all of them 
represent one type of energetic phenomena, no matter what 
is the origin of each. For example, a galvanic or chemical 
battery produces the same kind of electricity as the mechan- 
ical process of friction or the interaction of cosmic laws as 
in the dynamo. In some instances, when our systems are suit- 
ably adjusted, the transformations are reversible, that is, the 
energy results in a chemical process an accumulator; the 
chemical process results in electricity the galvanic battery; 
motion results in electricity the dynamo; electricity results 
in motion the electric motor; etc. We know all energies 
are somehow related to each other, in that their transforma- 
tion is possible. The effects produced by the same type of 
energy are absolutely the same no matter what its origin. 
The marvel of an electric lamp is the same marvel, whether 
the origin of the electricity be chemical, mechanical or cos- 
mic as in the dynamo. The experiments in scientific biology 
have proved this to be true in living organisms and just this 
is the tremendous importance of the discoveries in scientific 
biology. Light and other energies react on organisms in the 
same way as the chemical reactions and these phenomena 
are reversible. More than that, living complex organisms 
have been produced which grew to maturity through a chemi- 


cal or mechanical treatment of the egg, and this has been 
accomplished in the infancy of scientific biology! (See The 
Organisms as a Whole, by Jacques Loeb.) 

All phenomena in nature are natural and should be ap- 
proached as such. The human mind is at least an energy 
which can direct other energies; it is incorrect and mislead- 
ing to call it supernatural. It is of course true that we do 
not fully understand the nature of the human mind and we 
shall learn to understand it when and only when we acquire 
sense enough to recognize it as natural. If we persist in 
saying and believing that the "spiritual evidences cannot be 
explained on a material base," this statement should be equally 
applicable to electricity or radium. If this statement is false 
for these phenomena, it is equally false for the mind or the 
so-called spiritual and will powers. The scientific under- 
standing of these phenomena will not "degrade" these phe- 
nomena, because that cannot be done. Facts remain facts and 
no scientific explanation of a phenomenon can lower or de- 
grade that which is a fact. Electricity is electricity and 
nothing else, no matter what its origin ; human time-binding 
energies (embracing all faculties) are the highest of the 
known energies equally magnificent and astonishing no 
matter what the base ; and the scientific understanding of them 
will only add to our respect for them and for ourselves; it 
will unmistakably help us to develop them indefinitely by 
mathematical analysis. The base is not the phenomenon 
sulphuric acid and zinc are not electricity; time-binding 
energies are not a pound of beefsteak, although a pound of 
beefsteak may help to save life and be therefore instrumental 
in the production of a poem or of a sonata ; but by no means 
can a beefsteak be taken for either of them. 

I have attempted, with some measure of success I trust, 
to solve these problems in science and life; the results are 
astonishing, as they lead us to a much higher and more em- 
bracing ethics than society has ever had. By this analysis 


I prove that the understanding of this most stupendous but 
NATURAL phenomenon of human life brings us to the scien- 
tifical source of ethics and I prove that the so-called "highest 
ideals of humanity" have nothing of "sentimentalism" or of 
the "supernatural" in them, but are exclusively the fulfilment 
of the natural laws for the human class of life. The recog- 
nition of the fact that the phenomena of the human mind 
are natural and as such conform to natural law has the fur- 
ther advantage over the "supernatural" attitude in that we 
can no more evade a law of human nature than the law of 
gravity; in other words, human ethics will have the validity 
of natural law. With the supernatural attitude, it was simple 
enough to avoid the issues of life, by a simple statement "L 
do not believe" and that was enough to break all bonds and 
be free from the "supernatural morale" but to get away 
from the "natural morale" and remain HUMAN is IMPOS- 
SIBLE. Whereas, with an artificially formulated morale it 
was easy enough to break away by a simple mental specula- 
tion, and feel perfectly satisfied as long as one escaped the 
jail; with a morale made clear that it is a NATURAL LAW for 
the human class of life, the curtain of sophistry and specu- 
lation is removed and everyone who breaks away from the 


Engineers are not metaphysicians, their field is not one of 
clever argument but one of proved facts; their work is not 
to befog the air with cloudy expressions or sophistry, but to 
create; their method is scientific and their tool is mathe- 
matics. It is known that in remote antiquity, in some temples 
electrical phenomena were known and were used to keep 
the ignorant masses in awe and obedience. Shall we follow 
the methods used by those magicians or shall we squarely 
face facts? Shall we look upon life, and the usually so-called 
mental, spiritual phenomena, etc., as supernatural, simply 
because we do not understand them? It seems evident that 


everything which exists in nature, is natural, no matter how 
simple or complicated a phenomenon it is; and on no occa- 
sion can the so-called "supernatural" be anything else than 
a completely natural law, though it may, at the moment, be 
above or beyond our present understanding. The attitude 
of mind which admits the supernatural blinds and frustrates 
any analysis or any attempt at analysis. The unprejudiced 
analysis of the so-called "supernatural" does not alter any 
part of the strange and high functions of it. The phenomena 
of the human time-binding energy are and will remain the 
most precious, subtle and highest of known functions, no 
matter what the origin. Facts may not be denied or falsified 
if analysis is to arrive at correct conclusions. The high 
dimensionality of the human mind, the so-called spiritual and 
will powers, are facts and must be accepted as such. It is 
about time to establish an exact science to deal with them. 
The problems of animal life were approached without preju- 
dice, no supernatural "spark" was bothering us in our analysis 
an animal was an animal and nothing else we did not 
intermix dimensions, therefore we see that the "social struc- 
ture" of the animals on a farm never breaks down as they 
are managed on a scientific base with an understanding of 
their proper standards. Animals to-day live more happily 
than man. We don't allow animals to practice the "survival 
of the fittest," or "competition," which is far too destructive. 
Our present social system imposes these disastrous methods 
upon man alone, and the result is that the hideous proverb 
"Homo homini lupus" has become true. 

In modern science facts are not wanting, we have first but 
to know them. If we take, for example, sulphuric acid and 
zinc and make what we call a galvanic battery, we see that 
from two chemical substances a third a salt is made in 
addition to which we have a peculiar energy produced called 
electricity. Who does not know the marvelous properties 
of this phenomenon? 


Scientific biology has made tremendous progress lately; 
engineers cannot afford to ignore the facts established in labo- 
ratory researches. The problem of "life" and of other ener- 
gies, hitherto considered "supernatural," is well in hand, and 
proves to be none the less astonishing though entirely natural. 
A number of scientists all over the world are working at this 
problem and the scientific facts which they have established, 
and which cannot now be denied, belong to-day to the realm 
of practical life. Engineers, of course, have to know these 
facts; mathematicians have to establish correct dimensions in 
the study of all the sciences and people will have to study 
mathematical philosophy; only then can the process of inte- 
gration in any phase of thought be made without mistakes. 
There is no escape from that, if truth is what we really want. 
But here one objection may be raised, an objection which 
for some is a serious one indeed ; namely, what will take the 
place of the old philosophy, law and ethics, if human life 
is nothing else than a' physico-chemical process? To quote 
Doctor Jacques Loeb from his Mechanistic Conception of 
Life: "If on the basis of a serious survey, this question (that 
all life phenomena can be unequivocally explained in physico- 
chemical terms Author) can be answered in the affirmative, 
our social and ethical life will have to be put on a scientific 
basis and our rules of conduct must be brought into harmony 
with the results of scientific biology. Not only is the mechan- 
istic conception of life compatible with ethics, it seems the 
only conception of life which can lead to an understanding of 
the source of ethics." 

I hope to have proved in this book that scientific ethics is 
based on natural laws for the human class of life; that it is 
based on the experimentally proved fact that Man is a Time- 
binder, naturally active as such in time; and that this con- 
cept or definition of Man is rigorously scientific and accounts 
for the highest functions of man the highest of the mental 


and spiritual perfections without the need of any "super- 
natural" hypothesis. 

Scientific biology proves the fact that life and all of its 
phenomena are the results of some special physico-chemical 
processes, which manifest themselves in some peculiar energies, 
of which the human mind is the highest known form. These 
processes are known to be reversible, in that some of these 
peculiar energies cause physico-chemical changes in their own 
base; the process involved I propose to call biolysis, as I pro- 
pose to call biolyte the substances produced. These phenom- 
ena have a parallel analogy in inorganic chemistry in elec- 
tricity the difference being only in the scale or dimension. 
When an electric current is passed through a special battery 
called an accumulator or reversible battery, chemical changes 
occur, in that new compounds are formed which possess a 
reversible capacity; namely, in reproducing the former mate- 
rials that is, electricity is generated. This process of form- 
ing chemical substances by the passing of an electrical current 
is called electrolysis and the product so produced is called 
electrolyte. At the same time it is a known fact that organic 
chemistry is infinitely more complicated and variable than 
inorganic chemistry. The energy produced by the reactions 
of some organic chemical groups are, therefore, of a more 
complicated character and of another dimension. One of 
these energies of organic chemistry which lately has come into 
the scope of scientific analysis is called life its physico- 
chemical base is the protoplasm, which result I call the 
"time-linking" capacity or energy. This name is important 
for the -consequences it will bring about later on. The time- 
binding capacity or energy of man (no matter what time 
is if it is) , which is unique to man, is a most subtle com- 
plex ; it is the highest known energy and probably has many 
subdivisions. Ears are sensitive to the vibration of the 
air. Eyes are sensitive to the more subtle vibrations of 


light; in a similar way, the time-binding apparatus is sen- 
sitive to the most subtle energies; besides which it has the 
capacity to register not only all of our sensations but also 
the time-binding energies of other people; and it apparently 
has the capacity to register the energies of the universe. 

Here again we see the same continuity of phenomena; the 
protoplasm as a complex organic physico-chemical unit which 
has the peculiarity to "live," to grow and multiply "autono- 
mously" and this same autonomous peculiarity applies to the 
time-binding energy; it grows and multiplies "autonomously" 
in its own dimension. The time-binding energy is a complex 
radiating energy somewhat like the emanations of radium 
and it probably also has many different subdivisions. Note 
that the transformation of the atom or the transformation of 
radio-active substances after passing different stages, is not 
complete but probably ends in lead, whereas the transforma- 
tion which occurs in the production of the time-binding energy 
probably is complete or nearly complete and is that which I 
call the time-binding energy.. (See App. /.) All the higher 
characteristics of man which it is customary to call the "men- 
tal, spiritual and will powers," etc., are embraced in this 
exact definition of energy in the capacity of time-binding. 
A diagram will better explain the continuity, evolution and 
mechanism of this time-binding energy. 

C x is the physico-chemical base (for simplicity I represent 
the whole complex as one base) of the human time-binding 
energy. 7\ is the thought produced by a physico-chemical 
process (corresponding, for illustration's sake only, to elec- 
tricity produced by a galvanic battery). The thought 7\ 
in turn produces a physico-chemical effect E l on the base 
C^ (corresponding for the same reason to electrolysis and 
electrolyte in electricity). C^ and E i combined, or C 2 pro- 
duces T 2 which again in turn affects the base and produces 
a physico-chemical effect E 2 , this new combination produces 
the energy T 8 , and so on ... theoretically without limits, 




as long as there is any source of energy upon which this 
special energy can draw. This theory which I call the 
"spiral theory" represents a suggestive working mechanism 
of the time-binding energy and is in accord with the latest 
scientific discoveries. It explains the processes of all the 
mental and so-called spiritual energies which have been such 
a puzzle to humanity, and it also explains other phenomena 
which, until now, have had no scientific explanation whatever. 
The animals are not time-binding, they have not the 
capacity of the "spiral"; therefore, they have not autonomous 
progress. At the same time, it will be obvious that if we 
teach humans false ideas, we affect their time-binding ca- 
pacities and energies very seriously, by affecting in a wrong 
way the physico-chemical base. This energy is so peculiar 
that it embraces, if I may use the old expression, the highest 
ideals (when the time-binding energy is unobstructed and is 
allowed to work normally), and also the most criminal ideas 
(when the time-binding energy is obstructed by false teach- 
ings and in consequence works abnormally). We cannot make 
animals moral or immoral because they have not this time- 
binding capacity. Whereas human progress can be very 
seriously affected by false ideas; in other words, the biolyte 
of false teachings in the animal dimension must be very dif- 
ferent from the biolyte of true ideas in the human dimension. 
Nature or nature's laws happily cannot be completely devi- 
ated from or violated the time-binding energy cannot be 
completely suppressed in the time-binding class of life. The 
false teachings that we are animals and essentially brutal and 
selfish can, of course, degrade human nature not only down 
to the animal level but lower still. Happily now science can 
explain and prove how fundamentally fiendish in effect are 
these teachings in the life and progress of human beings. 
It will be a shock to those who teach, preach and practice 
animal standards and in the same breath contradict them- 
selves in any talking about "immortality" and "salvation"; 


a little thought makes it perfectly clear that "animal stand- 
ards" and "salvation" or "immortality" simply exclude each 
other. With the natural law of time-binding realized, the 
way is open to entering scientifically upon the problem of 
immortality. The time-binding energies as well as "life" 
follow the same type of exponential function. "The con- 
stant synthesis then of specific material from simple com- 
pounds of a non-specific character is the chief feature by 
which living matter differs from non-living matter. . . . This 
problem of synthesis leads to the assumption of immortality 
of the living cell, since there is no a priori reason why this 
synthesis should ever come to a standstill of its own accord 
as long as enough food is available and the proper outside 
physical conditions are guaranteed. . . . The idea that the 
body cells are naturally immortal and die only if exposed 
to extreme injuries such as prolonged lack of oxygen or too 
high a temperature helps to make one problem more intel- 
ligible. The medical student, who for the first time realizes 
that life depends upon that one organ, the heart, doing its 
duty incessantly for the seventy years or so allotted to man, 
is amazed at the precariousness of our existence. It seems 
indeed uncanny that so delicate a mechanism should function 
so regularly for so many years. The mysticism connected 
with this and other phenomena of adaptation would disappear 
if we would be certain that all cells are really immortal 
and that the fact which demands an explanation is not the 
continued activity but the cessation of activity in death. Thus 
we see that the idea of the immortality of the body cell if 
it can be generalized may be destined to become one of the 
main supports for a complete physico-chemical analysis of life 
phenomena since it makes the durability of organisms intel- 
ligible. . . ." (The Organism as a Whole, by Jacques Loeb.) 
The outlook for those who live and profess selfish, greedy, 
"space-binding animal standards" is not very promising as 
disclosed by the "spiral," but unhappily we cannot help them; 


only time-binding only fulfilling the natural laws for 
humans can give them the full benefit of their natural 
capacities by which they will be able to raise themselves above 
animals and their fate. 

The results obtained in scientific biological researches are 
growing very rapidly and every advance in their knowledge 
proves this theory to be true. If they differ in a few instances 
it is not because the principles of this theory are wrong, but 
because they intermix dimensions and use words not suf- 
ficiently defined which always results in confusion and the 
checking of the progress of science. 

Most of the problems touched upon in this appendix from 
a mathematical point of view are based upon laboratory facts. 
We have only to collect them and there is little need of 
imagination to see their general bearing. Since we have dis- 
covered the fact that Man is a time-binder (no matter what 
time is) and have introduced the sense of dimensionality into 
the study of life phenomena in general, a great many facts 
which were not clear before become very clear now. 

I wrote this book on a farm without any books at hand 
and I had been out of touch with the progress of science for 
the five years spent in the war service and war duties. My 
friend Dr. Grove-Korski, formerly at Berkeley University, 
drew my attention particularly to the books of Dr. Jacques 
Loeb. I found there a treasury of laboratory facts which 
illustrate as nothing better could, the correctness of my theory. 
I found with deep satisfaction that the new "scientific biology" 
is scientific because it has used mathematical methods with 
notable regard to dimensionality they do not "milk an auto- 

For the mathematician and the engineer, the "tropism 
theory of animal conduct," founded by Dr. J. Loeb, is of 
the greatest interest, because this is a theory which analyses 
the functions and reactions of an organism as a whole and 


therefore there is no chance for confusion of ideas or the 
intermixing of dimensions. 

"Physiologists have long been in the habit of studying not 
the reactions of the whole organism but the reactions of isolated 
segments; the so-called reflexes. While it may seem justifi- 
able to construct the reactions of the organism as a whole from 
the individual reflexes, such an attempt is in reality doomed to 
failure, since the reactions produced in an isolated element 
cannot be counted upon to occur when the same element is part 
of the whole, on account of the mutual inhibitions which the 
different parts of the organism produce upon each other when 
in organic connection; and it is, therefore, impossible to express 
the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum of the reflexes 
of its isolated segments. ... It would, therefore, be a miscon- 
ception to speak of tropism as of reflexes, since tropisms are 
reactions of the organism as a whole, while reflexes are reactions 
of isolated segments. Reflexes and tropisms agree, however, in 
one respect, inasmuch as both are obviously of a purely physico- 
chemical character." Forced Movements Tropism and Animal 
Conduct. By Jacques Loeb. 

I will quote here only a very few passages, but these books 
are of such importance that every mathematician and engineer 
should read them. They are, if I may say so, a "mathe- 
matical biology" the survey of a life long study of "tro- 
pisms," which is the name given to express "forced movements" 
in organisms. They give the quintessence of laboratory ex- 
periments as to what are the effects of different energies such 
as light (heliotropism), electricity (galvanotropism), gravity 
( geotropism ) , etc., in their reaction and influence upon the 
movements and actions of living organisms. These experi- 
ments are conclusive and the conclusions arrived at cannot 
be overlooked or evaded. The tremendous practical results 
of such scientific methods are based upon two principles, 
namely: that, (i) the scientists must think mathematically, 
their studies of the phenomena must be in "systems" as a 
complex whole, and they must not intermix dimensions; (2) 


they must see the danger and not be afraid of old words 
with wrong meanings, but must use clear and rigorous think- 
ing to eliminate the prejudices in science the poison of meta- 
physical speculating with words, or verbalism. These books 
give ample proofs of how misleading and obscuring are the 
words used and how basically wrong are the conclusions 
arrived at by such scientists as still persist in using the 
anthropomorphic or teleological methods of analysis. If a scep- 
tical or doubtful reader is interested to see an ample proof 
of how deadly is the effect which an incorrect or unmathe- 
matical manner of thinking brings into science and life he. 
also may be referred to these books. The following quota* 
tions prove biologically that man is of a totally different 
dimension a totally different being than an animal. From 
Dr. Conklin I quote only from his Heredity and Environ- 
ment and to save a repetition of the title of the book, I 
will indicate the quotations by using only his name. (All 
italics are indicated by A. K.) 

"It would be of the greatest importance to show directly 
that the homologous proteins of different species are different. 
This has been done for hemoglobins of the blood by Reichert and 
Brown, who have shown by crystallographic measurements 
that the hemoglobins of any species are definite substances for 
that species. . . . The following sentences by Reichert and 
Brown seem to indicate that this may be true for the crystals of 
hemoglobin. ' The hemoglobins of any species are different sub- 
stances for that species. But upon comparing the corresponding 
substances hemoglobins in different species of a genus it is 
generally found that they differ the one from the other to a 
greater or less degree; the differences being such that when 
complete crystallographic data are available the different species 
can be distinguished by these differences in their hemoglobins'. . . . 
The facts thus far reported imply the suggestion that heredity 
of the genus is determined by the proteins of a definite constitu- 
tion differing from the proteins of other genera. This constitu- 
tion of the proteins would therefore be responsible for the genus 
heredity. The different species of a genus have all the same 
genus proteins, but the proteins of each species of the same 
genus are apparently different again in chemical constitution 


and hence they may give rise to the specific biological or immun- 
ity reactions." The Organism as a Whole, by Jacques Loeb. 

"All pecularitifs which are characteristic of a race, species, 
genus, order, class and phylum are of course inherited, otherwise 
there would be no constant characteristics of these groups and 
no possibility of classifying organisms. The chief characters 
of every living thing are unalterably fixed by heredity. Men 
do not gather grapes of thorns nor figs of thistles. Every living 
thing produces off-spring after its own kind, Men, horses, cattle; 
birds, reptiles, fishes; insects, mollusks, worms; polyps, sponges, 
micro-organisms, all of the million known species of animals and 
plants differ from one another because of inherited peculiarities, 
because they have come from different kinds of germ cells" Conklin. 

"The entire organism consisting of structures and functions, 
body and mind, develops out of the germ, and the organization 
of the germ determines all the possibilities of development of 
the mind no less than of the body, though the actual realization 
of any possibility is dependent also upon environmental stimuli." 
. . . Conklin. 

"The development of the mind parallels that of the body; 
whatever the ultimate relation of the mind and body may be, 
there can be no reasonable doubt that the two develop together 
from the germ. It is a curious fact that many people who are 
seriously disturbed by scientific teaching as to the evolution or 
gradual development of the human race accept with equanimity 
the universal observation as to the development of the human 
individual, mind as well as body. The animal ancestry of 
the race is surely no more disturbing to philosophical or religious 
beliefs than the germinal origin of the individual, and yet the 
latter is a fact of universal observation which cannot be relegated 
to the domain of hypothesis or theory, and which can not be 
successfully denied. . . . Now we know that the child comes 
from the germ cells which are not made by the bodies of the 
parents but have arisen by the division of the antecedent germ 
cell. Every cell comes from a pre-existing cell by a process of 
division, and every germ cell comes from a pre-existing germ cell. 
Consequently it is not possible to hold, that the body generates 
germ cells, nor that the soul generates souls. The only possible 
scientific position is that the mind or soul as well as the body 
develops from the germ. 

" No fact in human experience is more certain than that the 
mind develops by gradual and natural processes from a simple 
condition which can scarcely be called mind at all; no fact 
in human experience is fraught with greater practical and philo- 


sophical significance than this, and yet no fact is more generally 
disregarded." Conklin. 

" Doubtless the elements of which consciousness develops are 
present in the germ cells, in the same sense that the elements of 
the other psychic processes or of the organs of the body are 
there present; not as a miniature of the adult condition, but 
rather in the form of elements or factors, which by long series of 
combinations and transformations, due to interactions with one 
another and with the environment, give rise to the fully developed 
condition. ... It is an interesting fact that in man, and in 
several other animals which may be assumed to have a sense of 
identity, the nerve cells, especially those of the brain, cease 
dividing at an early age, and these identical cells persist through- 
out the remainder of life." . . . 

"The hen does not produce the egg, but the egg produces the 
hen and also other eggs. Individual traits are not transmitted 
from the hen to the egg, but they develop out of germinal 
factors which are carried along from cell to cell, and from genera~ 
tion to generation. ..." 

"The germ is the undeveloped organism which forms the 
bond between successive generations; the person is the developed 
organism which arises from the germ under the influence of 
environmental conditions, the person develops and dies in each 
generation; the germ-plasm is the continuous stream of living 
substance which connects all generations. The person nour- 
ishes and protects the germ, and in this sense the person is 
merely the carrier of the germ-plasm, the mortal trustee of an 
immortal substance." Conklin. 

This is what I call "time-linking." (Author.) 

"Through intelligence and social cooperation he is able to 
control environment for particular ends, in a manner quite 
impossible in other organisms. . . . Other animals develop 
much more rapidly than man but that development sooner 
comes to an end. The children of lower races of man develop 
more rapidly than those of higher races but in such cases they 
also cease to develop at an earlier age. The prolongation of the 
period of infancy and of immaturity in the human race greatly 
increases the importance of environment and training as factors 
of development." Conklin. 

Another sidelight given on the "Spiral theory." (Author.) 

"In education also we are strangely blind to proper aims and 
methods. Any education is bad which leads to the formation 


of habits of idleness, carelessness, failure, instead of habits of 
industry, thoroughness and success. Any religious or social 
institution is bad which leads to habits of pious make-believe, 
insincerity, slavish regard for authority and disregard for evi- 
dence, instead of habits of sincerity, open-mindedness and inde- 
pendence. . . ." 

"All that man now is he has come to be without conscious 
human guidance. If evolution has progressed from the amceba 
to man without human interference, if the great progress from 
ape-like men to the most highly civilized races has taken place 
without conscious human control, the question may well be 
asked : Is it possible to improve on the natural method of evolu- 
tion? It may not be possible to improve on the method of 
evolution and yet by intelligent action it may be possible to 
facilitate that method. Man can not change a single law of nature 
but he can put himself into such relations to natural laws that he 
an profit by them" Conklin. 

This proves the great importance of KNOWING THE NAT- 
URAL LAWS for the human class of life, and making natural 
time-binding impulses conscious, for then only will the spiral 
give a logarithmical accumulation of the right kind, other- 
wise the biolyte will be "animal" in substance as well as in 
effect. Here it is immaterial how the first "time-binder" was 
produced; the fact that he is of another dimension is of the 
greatest importance. 

" From sands to stars, from the immensity of the universe to 
the minuteness of the electron, in living things no less than in 
lifeless ones, science recognizes everywhere the inevitable 
sequence of cause and effect, the universality of natural proc- 
esses, the reign of natural law. Man also is a part of Nature, 
a part of the great mechanism of the universe, and all that he is 
and does is limited and prescribed by laws of nature. Every human 
being comes into existence by a process of development, every 
step of which is determined by antecedent causes. . . . Our 
anatomical, physiological, psychological possibilities were pre- 
determined in the germ cells from which we came. . . ." 

This shows the importance of keeping the study of humans 
in their own dimensionality, and also the importance of find- 


ing the IMPERSONAL NATURAL LAWS for the human class of 
life. Now it can be realized that all the so-called human 
ideals are none else than the ever growing fulfillment of the 
NATURAL "TIME-BINDING" LAWS. This understanding will 
enable man to discover new "time-binding" laws for their 
conduct, their business relations, their state, which will not 
be a contradiction of the real, NATURAL LAWS but will be in 
accord with them; then and only then human progress will 
have a chance to develop peacefully. 

"Adult characteristics are potential and not actual in the 
germ, and their actual appearance depends upon many com- 
plicated reactions of the germinal units with one another and 
with the environment. In short, our actual personalities are 
not predetermined in the germ cells, but our possible personali- 
ties are. . . . The influence of environment upon the minds 
and morals of men is especially great. To a large extent our 
habits, words, thoughts; our aspirations, ideals, satisfactions; 
our responsibility, morality, religion are the x results of the 
environment and education of our early years. ..." 

"Owing to this vastly greater power of memory, reflection 
and inhibition man is much freer than any other animal. Ani- 
mals which learn little from experience have little freedom and 
the more they learn the freer they become. ..." Conklin. 

It may be added here that the "spiral theory" explains how 
our reactions can be accelerated and elaborated by ourselves, 
and how truly we are the masters of our destinies. 

"Because we can find no place in our philosophy and logic 
for self determination shall we cease to be scientists and close 
our eyes to the evidence ? The first duty of science is to appeal 
to fact and to settle later with logic and philosophy. ..." 

There will be no difficulty in the settlement of facts with 
the new philosophy of "Human Engineering." 

"The analysis of instinct from a purely physiological point of 
view ultimately furnishes the data for a scientific ethics. 
Human happiness is based upon the possibility of a natural and 
harmonious satisfaction of the instincts. . . It is rather 


remarkable that we should still be under the influence of an 
ethics which considers the human instincts in themselves low 
and their gratification vicious. That such an ethics must have 
had a comforting effect upon the orientals, whose instincts were 
inhibited or warped through the combined effects of an enervat- 
ing climate, despotism and miserable economic conditions is 
intelligible, and it is perhaps due to a continuation of the unsatis- 
factory economic conditions that this ethics still prevails to 
some extent. . . . Lawyers, criminologists and philosophers 
frequently imagine that only want makes man work. This is 
an erroneous view. We are instinctively forced to be active in 
the same way as ants or bees. The instinct of workmanship 
would be the greatest source of happiness if it were not for the 
fact that our present social and economic organization allows 
only a few to satisfy this instinct. Robert Mayer has pointed 
out that any successful display or setting free of energy is a 
source of pleasure to us. This is the reason why the satisfac- 
tion of the instinct of workmanship is of such importance in the 
economy of life, for the play and learning of the child, as well as 
for the scientists or commercial work of the man. . . . We can 
vary at will the instincts of animals. A number of marine 
animals ... go away from the light, can be forced to go to 
light in two ways, first by lowering the temperature and second 
by increasing the concentration of the sea water, whereby the 
cells of the animals lose water. This instinct can be again 
reversed by raising the temperature or by lowering the concen- 
tration of the sea water. I have found repeatedly that by the 
same conditions by which phenomena of growth and organiza- 
tion can be controlled the instincts are controlled also. This 
indicates that there is a common basis for both classes of life 
phenomena. This common base is the physical and chemical 
character of the mixture of substances which we call protoplasm. 
. . . The greatest happiness in life can be obtained only if all 
instincts, that of workmanship included, can be maintained at a 
certain optimal intensity^. But while it is certain that the indi- 
vidual can ruin or diminish the value of its life by a onesided 
development of its instincts, e.g., dissipation, it is at the same 
time true that the economic and social conditions can ruin or 
diminish the value of life for a great number of individuals. It 
is no doubt true that in our present social and economic condi- 
tions more than ninety per cent of human beings lead an exist- 
ence whose value is far below what it should be. They are 
compelled by want to sacrifice a number of instincts especially 
the most valuable among them, that of workmanship, in order 


to save the lowest and most imperative, that of eating. If 
those who amass immense fortunes could possibly intensify their 
lives with their abundance, it might perhaps be rational to let 
many suffer in order to have a few cases of true happiness. But 
for an increase of happiness only that amount of money is of 
service which can be used for the harmonious development and 
satisfaction of inherited instincts. For this, comparatively little is 
necessary. The rest is of no more use to a man than the surplus 
of oxygen in the atmosphere. As a matter of fact, the only true 
satisfaction a multimillionaire can possibly get from increasing 
his fortunes, is the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship 
or the pleasure that is connected with a successful display of 
energy. The scientist gets this satisfaction without diminish- 
ing the value of life of his fellow being, and the same should be 
true for the business man. . . . Although we recognize no meta- 
physical free-will, we do not deny personal responsibility. We 
can fill the memory of the young generation with such associa- 
tions as will prevent wrong doing or dissipation. . . . Cruelty 
in the penal code and the tendency to exaggerate punishment 
are sure signs of a low civilization and of an imperfect educa- 
tional system. ... It seems to me that we can no more expect 
to unravel the mechanism of associative memory by histo- 
logical or morphological methods than we can expect to 
unravel the dynamics of electrical phenomena by microscopic 
study of cross-sections through a telegraph wire or by counting 
and locating the telephone connections in a big city. If we are 
anxious to develop a dynamic of the various life-phenomena, 
we must remember that the colloidal substances are the machines 
which produce the life phenomena, but the physics of these 
substances is still a science of the future. . . . Physiology gives 
us no answer to the latter question. The idea of specific energy 
has always been regarded as the terminus for the investigation 
of the sense organs. Mach expressed the opinion that chemical 
conditions lie at the foundation of sensation in general. ..." 
Comparative Physiology of the Brain, by Jacques Loeb. 

Here it may be added that the "Instinct of Workmanship" 
in the animal class, becomes in the time-binding class of life 
the instinct of creation, and is nothing else than the expres- 
sion of the natural impulse of the "Time-binding" energy. In 
the present social and economic system very few have a pos- 
sibility to satisfy this instinct; scientific management is or 


may be satisfying the animal instinct of workmanship, but 
it is not satisfactory to the instinct of creation. "Time- 
binding" in its last analysis is creation and only such a social 
and economic system as will satisfy this want this natural 
impulse will satisfy Humans the "Time-binders" and 
will bring about their fullest growth in work and happiness. 
"LAWS OF GROWTH" (from Unified Mathematics, by 
Louis C. Karpinski, Ph.D.). "Compound interest function. 
The function <S=P(i-j-i) w is of fundamental importance 
in other fields than in finance. Thus the growth of timber 
of a large forest tract may be expressed as a function of this 
kind, the assumption being that in a large tract the rate of 
growth may be taken as uniform from year to year. In 
the case of bacteria growing under ideal conditions in a 
culture, i.e. with unlimited food supplied, the increase in the 
number of bacteria per second is proportional to the number 
of bacteria present at the beginning of that second. Any 
function in which the rate of change or rate of growth at 
any instant / is directly proportional to the value of the 
function at the instant t obeys what has been termed the 'law 
of organic growth,' and may be expressed by the equation, 

y=ce kt , 

wherein c and k are constants determined by the physical 
facts involved, and e is a constant of nature analogous to IT. 
The constant k is the proportionality constant and is negative 
when the quantity in question decreases; c is commonly posi- 
tive ; 


"The values of the function of x, ce kx , increase according to 
the terms of a geometrical progression as the variable x in- 
creases in arithmetical progression. . . . 

"The most immediate application of a function in which the 


growth is proportional to the function itself is to the air. The 
decrease in the pressure of the air at the distance h above 
the earth's surface is proportional to h. 

"The expression P=y6o e~7wo gives the numerical value 
of the pressure in millimeters of mercury for h measured in 
meters. The negative exponent indicates that the pressure 
decreases as h increases. In inches as units of length of the 
mercury column, h in feet, 




This is known as Halley's law. 

"The growth of bean plants within limited intervals and the 
growth of children, again between quite restricted limits, 
follow approximately the law of organic growth. Radium in 
decomposing follows the same law; the rate of decrease at 
any instant being proportional to the quantity. In the case 
of vibrating bodies, like a pendulum, the rate of decrease of 
the amplitude follows this law ; similarly in the case of a noise 
dying down and in certain electrical phenomena, the rate of 
decrease is proportional at any instant to the value of the 
function at the instant. . . . 

"The Curve of Healing of a Wound. Closely allied to the 
formulas expressing the law of organic growth, y = e kt , and 
the law of 'organic decay,' y=^~ tt , is a recently discovered 
law which connects algebraically by an equation and graphic- 
ally by a curve, the surface-area of a wound, with time ex- 
pressed in days, measured from the time when the wound 
is aseptic or sterile. When this aseptic condition is reached, 
by washing and flushing continually with antiseptic solutions, 
two observations at an interval commonly of four days give 
the 'index of the individual,' and this index, and the two 
measurements of area of the wound-surface, enable the 
physician-scientist to determine the normal progress of the 
wound-surface, the expected decrease in area, for this wound- 


surface of this individual. The area of the wound is traced 
carefully on transparent paper, and then computed by using 
a mathematical machine, called a planimeter, which measures 

"The areas of the wound are plotted as ordinates with the 
respective times of observation measured in days as abscissas. 
After each observation and computation of area the point so 
obtained is plotted to the same axes as the graph which gives 
the ideal or prophetic curve of healing. 

"When the observed area Is found markedly greater than 
that determined by the ideal curve, the indication is that there 
is still infection in the wound. ... A rather surprising and 
unexplained situation occurs frequently when the wound- 
surface heals more rapidly than the ideal curve would indi- 
cate; in this event secondary ulcers develop which bring the 
curve back to normal ..... 

"This application of mathematics to medicine is largely due 
to Dr. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical 
Research. He noted that the larger the wound-surface, the 
more rapidly it healed, and that the rate of healing seemed 
to be proportional to the area. This proportionality constant 
is not the same for all values of the surface or we would 
have an equation of the form, 

in which S, is the area at the time that the wound is rendered 
sterile and observations to be plotted really begin. . . . 

"The data given are taken from the Journal of Experi- 
mental Medicine, reprints kindly furnished by Major George 
A* Stewart of the Rockefeller Institute. The diagrams are 
reproduced from the issue of Feb. i, 1918, pp. i/i and 172, 
article by Dr. T. Tuffier and R. Desmarres, Auxiliary Hos- 
pital 75, Paris. . . . 

"WAVE MOTION. General. In nature there are two types 
of recurrent motion, somewhat closely connected mathemat- 

2 4 8 








O <O 



*C 6 

3 0> 

< g; 

rt fa 







ically, in which repetition of motion occurs at regular in- 

"One type of this motion, in cycles as we may say, repeats 
the motion in one place, and is in a sense stationary. The 
tuning fork in motion moves through the same space again 
and again; a similar movement is the motion of a vibrating 
string. Of this stationary type may be mentioned the heart- 
beats, the pulse, the respiration, the tides, and the rotation 
of a wheel about its axis. 

"The second type of recurrent motion transmits or carries 
the vibratory impulse over an extent of space as well as time. 
The waves of the sea are of this character. Sound waves, 
electrical vibrations or waves, and radiant energy vibrations 
are transmitted by a process similar to that by which the 
waves of the sea are carried. 

"Both of these types of motion are representable mathe- 
matically by equations involving a sequence of trigonometric 
functions. To the fundamental and basic function involved, 
y= sin*, we will direct our attention in the next section and 
to simple applications in other sections of this chapter. . . . 

"Sound Waves. If a tuning fork for note lower C is set 
to vibrating, the free bar makes 129 complete, back-and- 
forth, vibrations in one second. By attaching a fine point 
to the end of the bar and moving under this bar at a uniform 
rate, as it vibrates, a smoke-blackened paper, a sinusoidal 
curve is traced on the paper. Our curve is traced by a bar 
vibrating 50 times in I second. 

The curve y = sin (50 X 2irt). 
Tuning fork vibrations recorded on smoked paper. . . . 

"Corresponding to each movement of the vibrating rod there 
is a movement of the air. As the bar moves to the right 


it compresses the layer of air to its right and that compres- 
sion is immediately communicated to the layer of air to the 
right; as the bar moves back and to the left, the pressure 
on the adjacent air is released and a rarefaction takes place. 
In^of i second you have the air adjacent to the rod com- 
pressed, back to normal, and rarefied; during this time the 
neighboring air is affected and the compression is commu- 
nicated a distance which is the wave length of this given 
sound wave. In I second this disturbance is transmitted 
1 100 feet at 44 Fahrenheit. The wave length for this sound 
wave then is i$^= 22 feet. 

"The wave length is commonly designated by \. If V 
is the velocity, and t the time of one vibration, X = Vt. 

'a' as in 
in 'be'; and "a in 


"Vibration records produced by the voice: 

'ou' as in 'about'; 'r' in 'relay'; 'e' in 'be'; and 'a 
'father.' The tuning fork record, frequency 50 per second, 
gives the vibration frequencies. ..." 

This last drawing may help to visualize the fact in what 
manner wrong expressions and untrue teachings hamper the 
true progress of humanity. Every word has its energy and 
produces some physico-chemical effects in the time-binding 
apparatus in accord with the idea which we associate with 
the sound of the word. If we teach ideas which are untrue, 


then the physico-chemical effects produced are not proper 
in other words the human mind does NOT WORK PROPERLY, 
that is, it does not work naturally or normally or true to the 
human dimension. There is every reason why the standards 
in our civilization are so low, because we have "poisoned," 
in a literal sense of the word, our minds with the physico- 
chemical effects of wrong ideas. This correct NATURAL 
APPROACH to the "Time-binding" energies will make it obvi- 
ous how unmeasured is the importance of the manner in 
which we handle this subtle mechanism, as the poisoning with 
wrong ideas or with careless or incorrect words does not in 
any way differ in consequences from poisoning with any other 
stupor-producing or wrongly stimulating poison. 


LOEB, J. : "Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Com- 
parative Psychology." New York, 1900. 

LOEB, J. : "Studies in General Physiology." Chicago, 1905. 

LOEB, J. : "The Dynamics of Living Matter." New York, 

LOEB, J.: "The Mechanistic Conception of Life." Chicago, 


1 The Mechanistic Conception of Life. 
II. The Significance of Tropisms for Psychology. 

III. Some Fundamental Facts and Conceptions concern- 

ing the Comparative Physiology of the Central 
Nervous System. 

IV. Pattern Adaptation of Fishes and the Mechanism of 

V. On Some Facts and Principles of Physiological 


VI. On the Nature of the Process of Fertilization. 
VII. On the Nature of Formative Stipulation (Artificial 


VIII. The Prevention of the Death of the Egg through the 
Act of Fertilization. 


IX. The Role of Salts in the Preservation of Life. 
X. Experimental Study of the Influence of Environment 
on Animals. 

LOEB, J.: The Organism as a Whole. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
New York, 1916. 


I. Introductory Remarks. 

II. The Specific Difference between Living and Dead 
Matter and the Question of the Origin of Life. 

III. The Chemical Basis of Genus and Species: 

1. The Incompatibility of Species not Closely 


2. The Chemical basis of Genus and Species and of 

Species Specificity. 

IV. Specificity in Fertilization. 
V. Artificial Parthenogenesis. 

VI. Determinism in the Formation of an Organism from 

an Egg. 

VII. Regeneration. 

VIII. Determination of Sex, Secondary Sexual Characters 
and Sexual Instincts: 

1. The Cytological Basis of Sex Determination. 

2. The Physiological Basis of Sex Determination. 
IX. Mendelian Heredity and its Mechanism. 

X. Animal Instincts and Tropisms. 
XI. The Influence of Environment. 
XII. Adaptation to Environment. 

XIII. Evolution. 

XIV. Death and Dissolution of the Organism. 

LOEB, J. : "Forced Movements, Tropisms, and Animal Con- 
duct." J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1918. 


I. Introduction. 

II. The Symmetry Relations of the Animal Body as the 
Starting Point for the Theory of Animal Conduct. 

III. Forced Movements. 

IV. Galvanotropism. 

V. Heliotropism. The Influence of One Source of Light. 


1. General Facts. 

2. Direct Proof of the Muscle Tension Theory of 

Heliotropism in Motile Animals. 

3. Heliotropism of Unicellular Organisms. 

4. Heliotropism of Sessile Animals. 
VI. An Artificial Heliotropic Machine. 

VII. Asymmetrical Animals. 

VIII. Two Sources of Light of Different Intensity. 
IX. The Validity of the Bunsen-Roscoe Law for the Helio- 
tropic Reactions of Animals and Plants. 
X. The Effect of Rapid Changes in Intensity of Light. 
XL The Relative Heliotropic Efficiency of Light of Differ- 
ent Wave Lengths. 
XII. Change in the Sense of Heliotropism. 

XIII. Geotropism. 

XIV. Forced Movements Caused by Moving Retina 

Images: Rheotropism: Anemotropism. 
XV. Stereotropism. 
XVI. Chemotropism. 
XVII. Thermotropism. 
XVIII. Instincts. 
XIX. Memory Images and Tropisms. 

A list of 554 books on this subject, in which any 
reader interested will find a vast storehouse of exact 
knowledge in this line. Author. 

CONKLIN, EDWIN GRANT: "Heredity and Environment in the 
Development of Men." Princeton University Press, 


I. Facts and Factors of Development. 

A. Phenomena of Development. 

B. Factors of Development. 

II. Cellular Basis of Heredity and Development. 

A. Introductory. 

B. The Germ Cells. 

C. The Mechanism of Heredity. 

D. The Mechanism of Development. 
III. Phenomena of Inheritance. 

A. Observations on Inheritance. 

B. Statistical Study of Inheritance. 

C. Experimental Study of Inheritance. 


IV. Influence of Environment. 

A. Relative Importance of Heredity and Environ- 


B. Experimental Modifications of Development. 

C. Functional Activity as a Factor of Development. 

D. Inheritance or Non-inheritance of Acquired 


E. Applications to Human Development: Euthen- 

V. Control of Heredity: Eugenics. 

A. Domesticated Animals and Cultivated Plants. 

B. Control of Human Heredity. 
VI. Genetics and Ethics. 

Glossary of books on this subject; for those who 
desire to be more fully acquainted with the subjects 
of heredity and development. Author. 

MORGAN, T. H., " Physical Basis of Heredity." 

EAST, E. M., and JONES, D. F., "Inbreeding and Outbreeding," 

PARKER, G. H., "The Elementary Nervous System." 
HARVEY, E. N., "The Nature of Animal Light." 



THE Arts of Engineering, by their very nature, are derived 
from the work of dead men and destined to serve not 
only the present but the future. They are freer than any 
other human activity from the errors of intermixing dimen- 
sions and from the fallacy of belief in individualistic accom- 
plishment and pride. The simple steel structure of a bridge, 
familiar to us in every day life, is a clear reminder to us 
all of the arts of Hephzestus and the bound-up knowledge 
of countless generations of smiths and mechanics, metallurgists 
and chemists, mathematicians and builders, teachers and engi- 
neers who toiled for many thousands of years to make pos- 
sible the riveted steel beams which are the elements of mod- 
ern structure. These structures do not collapse unless the 
natural laws for their construction are transgressed; which 
seldom happens for no one is entrusted with the work unless 
he has bound up in his knowledge the accumulated experience 
of the past; yet the transgressors of these natural laws are 
punished with all the severity of the common law. When a 
bridge is opened and tested, the written laws in some 
countries and the unwritten in others, and the pride and the 
sense of responsibility of the designer and builder of the 
bridge demand that he, the creator of the bridge, be the 
first to enter it and the last to leave it ; and should the bridge 
collapse, he has to take the immediate consequences of his 
neglect of the time-binding laws. 

Rarely are the affairs of engineering done with the entirely 
selfish motive of merely acquiring immediate selfish gain, 



for even when this could be traced this unworthy thought 
disappears in the halo of the glory of the accomplishment. 
Mr. Eiffel did not erect his tower to haunt Paris with the 
sight of a steel skeleton towering over the city of daring 
thoughts. His tower stands to-day as a mechanical proof of 
mathematical formulas proving the possibility of erecting tall, 
self-supporting structures and thereby serving future human- 
ity. The Time-binding capacity of humans creates and for- 
mulates new values for the service of mankind. Again, no 
student of the Arts of Engineering could ever forget himself 
to the point of claiming his accomplishments, no matter how 
marvelous, all to himself. No wondrous discovery of modern 
electricity, not even the talking from one hemisphere to 
another, is rightly the accomplishment of any one man, for 
the origin of the discovery can be traced at least as far back 
as the days of that barefooted shepherd boy Magnus, who first 
observed the phenomena of magnetism. 

In an attempt to trace and evaluate the time-binding fac- 
ulties manifested in the Arts of Engineering, one is at once 
astonished, and bewildered, at the confusion and contradic- 
tions unrealized in the mass of evidence, and how pathetic 
and deplorable is the sight of hundreds of thousands of work- 
ers in the field of engineering toil and creation who uncon- 
sciously submit to the degradation, in silent consent, of see- 
ing their marvelous collective achievements chained to space- 
binding aims. 

Upon the completion of this book I was astonished that 
there are such a small number of engineers who have the 
intuitive feeling of the greatness of the assets at their com- 
mand and of the gravity of their liabilities concerning affairs 
of humanity. I was eager to have my book read and analysed 
by a few leading engineers. The late H. L. Gantt being no 
more with us, I then turned to Walter N. Polakov, Doctor 
of Engineering; Industrial Counselor; Chairman of Com- 
mittee on Service and Information, Fuels Section, A.S.M.E., 


and Robert B. Wolf, Vice-President of A.S.M.E. In them 
I found, to the full, a very sympathetic understanding and 
my esteem grew as I became more intimately acquainted with 
the character of their work and their accomplishments. Both 
have done a most remarkable work in their respective lines. 
It will not be,an exaggeration to say that their work, together 
with the work of the late H. L. Gantt and Charles P. 
Steinmetz, may be considered as the first to my knowledge 
corner-stones of the science and art of Human Engineering, 
and form the first few volumes and writings for the New 
Library of the Manhood of Humanity. These books and 
pamphlets are based on facts analysed scientifically, marking 
the parting of the way of engineering thought from the past 
subjection to speculative fetishes. 

Of all the pure and applied sciences, engineering alone has 
the distinction of being the first to have the correct insight 
into the human problem. The task of engineers was to con- 
vert knowledge brain work "bound-up time" into daily 
bread by means of conserving time and effort. This concept 
is naught else but the working out of the imperfect formu- 
lation of the time-binding principle. It was inevitable, there- 
fore, that some engineers had already beaten the path in the 
right direction. How straight and how far this sense of 
dimensionality has led some of them in their practical work 
may be seen from the work of Walter N. Polakov, in his 
Mastering Power Production, Engineering Magazine, N. Y., 

"It was not my intention to compile a text book on power 
engineering; it was rather my care to avoid the treatment of 
any technical subject which could be found elsewhere in engi- 
neering literature; but I could not avoid trespassing in the 
adjoining fields of psychology and economics, for without 
familiarity with these sciences the mastery of power production 
is a futile attempt. 

" I do not hold that the principles upon which the method is 
laid out are subject to choice or opinions, for they are based on 


facts. Yet work of this character cannot be complete, or 
examples may be illy chosen, for it deals with living and con- 
stantly reshaping relations and applies to things in process of 

" If this work and its underlying idea will facilitate the solving 
of some of the problems now in the course of rapid evolution in 
our industrial relations, I shall feel that my own and my readers' 
time have not been altogether lost." 

Indeed the readers' time will not be lost. This book gives 
an engineering, scientific in the meantime practical analysis 
of all human problems. It is a deep and practical treatise 
on all great questions concerning modern industrialism and 
so-called economic problems and is a foundation for a new 
scientific industrial philosophy. Another very clear outline 
of the Principles of Industrial Philosophy was given by Mr. 
Polakov in his paper presented at the annual meeting of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, December 7-10, 
1920. Anyone who has anything to do with industrial or 
economic problems cannot afford to overlook the important 
and fundamental work in this book. 

It is obvious that a scientific knowledge of facts, is of the 
greatest importance for anyone who cares to approach any 
problem in a serious way. Statistics which are up-to-date are 
therefore of primary importance. I had the privilege of read- 
ing the manuscript of Quo Vadis America, the forthcoming 
book of Mr. Polakov, where a most valuable statistical picture 
of facts in modern America is given and the astonishing con- 
clusions which are to be drawn therefrom. I can only regret 
that in Europe we have not such a knowledge written down 
concerning European conditions. If more such books had 
been written and read by the public, many crises and catas- 
trophes would have been avoided. 

The outstanding contribution of Mr. Robert B. Wolf to 
engineering was made in his study of physiology, biology, 
psychology and philosophy as applied to engineering. 


"If anyone wishes to inquire into the forces which have led 
up to the individual development of mankind, he will find him- 
self at once plunged into the realm of psychology and mental 
philosophy. I can heartily recommend such a course as im- 
mensely profitable and of practical value. 

" The five important facts, however, that have to do with the 
subject in hand are: 

" ist. That the human body is such a wonderful organization 
because it is the product of the forces of creation, acting through 
millions of years of evolution. 

" 2nd. That its capacity for progress depends upon the main- 
tenance of the unity resulting from this creative evolution and 
upon a conscious recognition of this unity. 

" id. That this unity would not have been possible without the 
development of the nervous system. 

" 4th. That the conscious intelligent progress made by man- 
kind could not have reached its present level until in the process 
of evolution a mechanism had been built up in the nervous system 
itself capable of recording the various impressions which the 
senses are constantly receiving. 

" $th. That the recording of past events, with the power of 
consciously recalling them for the solution of problems imme- 
diately confronting it, is absolutely essential to its development. 

" Now, what I want to point out is that inasmuch as man's 
progress depends upon the perfect co-ordination of his forces to 
produce unity of action, we have no right to expect an industrial 
organization to make progress which it must do as a unit 
without the establishment of a conscious co-ordinating mechan- 
ism similar to the nervous system in the human body." Indi- 
viduality in Industry. By Robert B. Wolf. 

Doctor Charles P. Steinmetz has given in his America and 
the New Epoch a most correct engineering picture of the 
political situation in the world, with a fine characterization 
of the psychological peculiarities of the different races. 
Although this book was written in 1916, that is, before the 
end of the World War, it will be of permanent value; 
because of its deep psychological analysis of the peoples and 
their institutions which ultimately shape the development of 
any nation and which do not change with victory or defeat. 

"My tribute to the memory of Gantt will be, not only the 
homage of a friend and admirer, but the proof that his philos- 


ophy is scientifically true. A rigorous proof is necessary, 
because the word 'service' belongs to that category of words, 
the meaning of which can be completely reversed by the verb, 
be it 'give* or 'take.' Gantt took 'rendering service' as an 
axiom; my observation, shared with many others, is that our 
civilization had quite another axiom, 'we preach give, we 
practice take.' The problem which interested me, was how to 
find a way out of this contradiction that would be irrefutable. 
If one of them is true and natural law for humans, then the 
other is not; if our words are true, then our deeds are not true, 
or if our deeds are true then the words are camouflage. I found 
the solution, by applying mathematically rigorous thinking. 
Mathematics, with its exact concept of dimensions, gave me the 
method. The method we use in studying phenomena is analysis, 
or speaking mathematically, differentiation. I soon found, that 
the methods of differentiation are mostly correct, but our syn- 
thesis, or process of integration made by the use of metaphysics 
was faulty. The differentiation correctly lowered the dimen- 
sions, but our faulty integration did not restore the original 
dimensions. The investigation had to be made from the begin- 
ning, by defining the phenomena of life, in a specific way, which 
would not permit of any blunders in dimensions. 

" I defined the classes of life by emphasizing their incontest- 
able, dimensional characteristics: plants are 'Chemistry-bind- 
ing/ animals are 'Space-binding,' Humans are 'Time-binding' 
classes of life. 

"These definitions have the peculiarity that they make it 
obvious, that: i The classes of life have different dimensions, 
and that the intermixing of dimensions, as in mathematics it 
makes a correct solution impossible, so in life, the results of such 
elementary mistakes, produce tragic consequences. 

" 2 The old formula on which our civilization is built, HUMAN 
equal ANIMAL plus or multiplied by SPARK OF DIVINITY 
is basically and elementarily wrong, and is mathematical non- 
sense, which is identical to such an absurdity as x square inches 
equal y linear inches plus or multiplied by z cubic inches. 

" 3 This basically wrong formula on which our civilization 
rests, is the cause of all the periodical collapses, wars and revolu- 

"4 The old system was ouilt on animal 'space-binding' 
standards, and human 'time-binding' impulses were, all the 
time, in rebellion. 

" 5 As the theory of gravitation and the calculus made engi- 
neers and, mathematicians masters of inanimate nature, so these 



tangible and incontestable definitions give them a positive base 
which will enable them to approach and solve human living 
problems, by establishing the mathematical fact that man is 
man, not an animal. 

" 6 All of those who are blinded by traditions and refuse to 
investigate, or to know these mathematical truths, are a danger 
to humanity in directly helping to obscure issues, and in helping 
to maintain the faulty structure which, as in the past, is bound 
to collapse again and again in the future. 

"7 The duty of mathematically thinking people is to throw 
such light on this problem as will stop the stupid, or willfully 
destructive, and show whether they are working for or against, 

"8 For the 'time-binding' class of life, it is obvious then 
that in this dimension, 'time-binding' is the natural law, and, 
if understood and analysed, it is the highest human aim. 

"9 Such 'natural laws' as 'survival of the fittest' for ani- 
mals, which is the 'survival of the fittest in space,' result in 
fight, or the survival of the strongest; whereas such a law to be a 
NATURAL LAW FOR HUMANS, must be in the human 
dimension which obviously would be the 'Survival of the fittest 
in TIME,' resulting in the survival of the best. 

" 10 All known facts must be brought to the light, to be 
summed up, and correlated by mathematicians and engineers 
with the strictest attention to dimensionality. 

" II All of our ideas have to be revised; the animal 'space- 
binding' standards must be rejected as dangerous and destruc- 
tive, must be replaced by 'time-binding' standards, which will 
correspond to the natural impulses and NATURAL LAWS for 

" 12 The minds of mathematicians and engineers are by edu- 
cation the first to see the far reaching importance of the facts 
disclosed by these definitions, and just this realization will bring 
about the readjustment of values in life to a human dimension, 
wherein pending revolutions and wars could be turned into evolu- 
tion, destruction into construction, discord into accord of a 
common aim. 

" We are the masters of our own destinies, the responsibility is 
ours to correct the mistakes of our ancestors and to establish a 
scientific philosophy, scientifically true laws, scientifically true 
ethics, and a scientific sociology, which will form one unified 
science of man and his function in the universe, a science which 
I propose to call 'Human Engineering/ Gantt's methods 
would be the first practical application toward this end. 


"Gantt's concept of rendering service is scientifically true 
because it is 'time-binding,' and therefore true for the human 
class of life and in human dimension. This is why Gantt's 
concepts have counted for so much and will survive 'IN TIME.' " 
. . . Discussion by Alfred Korzybski of Mr. W. N. Polakov's 
paper "Principles of Industrial Philosophy" presented at the 
Annual Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, New York, December 7-10, 1920. 


GANTT, H. L.: 

"Work, Wages, and Profits." The Engineering Magazine 
Co., 1913. N. Y. 

"Industrial Leadership." Yale University Press. 1916. 

"Organizing for Work." Harcourt, Brace & Howe, 1919. 
N. Y. 

Selection from Contents: The Engineer as the Industrial 
Leader. Economics and Democracy. Democracy in 
Production. Democracy in the Shop. Democracy 
in Management. "The Religion of Democracy." 


"Mastering Power Production." The Engineering Maga- 
zine Co. 1921. N. Y. 

Selection from Contents: The Descent of the Principle of 
Production for Use. The Power Industry as an Econ- 
omic Factor. Mastering Labor Problems. (Conditions) 
Autonomous Co-operation. Aims of Labor. Right to be 
Lazy and the Right to a Job. Qualification of Men. The 
Working Day. Fatigue. UNIVERSAL LABOR (Cor- 
responding exactly to Time-binding Author). The Position 
of an Engineer. Mastering Labor Problems. Com- 
pensation. The Social Aspect. The Economic Aspect. 
The Basis of Wages. Incentive Payments. Profit Shar- 
ing. Premium Places. Rewarding Individual Efforts. 
Two-rate wages. Energy as a Commodity. 
"Principles of Industrial Philosophy." Presented at the 
Annual Meeting of the A. S. of M. E., December, 1920. 
"Equipment and Machinery." Y. M. C. A. Association Press. 

1921. N.Y. 
"Organization and Management." Y. M. C. A. Association 

Press. 1921. N. Y. 
"Quo Vadis America?" In preparation. 



"America and the New Epoch." Harper & Brothers. 1016. 


Selection from Contents: The Individualistic Era: From 
Competition to Co-operation. England in the Individual- 
istic Era. Germany in the Individualistic Era. The 
Other European Nations in the Individualistic Era. 
America in the Individualistic Era. Evolution: Indus- 
trial Government. 

"Incentive and Initiative." Y. M. C. A. Association Press. 
1921. N.Y. 

WOLF, ROBERT B.: Pamphlets. 

"Individuality in Industry." Bulletin of the Society to 

promote the Science of Management. Vol. I. No. 4. 

August, 1915. 
"The Creative Workman." Technical Association of the 

Pulp and Paper Industry. 1918. N. Y. 
"Non-Financial Incentives." Presented at the Annual 

Meeting of the A. S. of M. E. December, 1918. N. Y. 
"Modern Industry and the Individual," A. W. Shaw & Co. 

1919. N.Y. 

"Securing the Initative of the Workman." American Eco- 
nomic Association. 1919. N. Y. 
"Creative Spirit in Industry." Y. M. C. A. Association 

Press. 1921. N. Y. 


VON BERNHARDI, General F.: "Germany and the Next War." 
E. Arnold, London. 1912. 

BRANDEIS, Louis: Other People's Money and How the Bankers 
Use it." F. A. Stokes, N. Y. 1914. 

War." Chapman & Hall, London. 1916. 

HUEFFER, FORD MADDOX: "When Blood is Their Argument." 
Hodder & Stoughton. 1915. N. Y. 

HAUSER, HENRY: "Germany's Commercial Grip on the World, 
Her Business Methods Explained." E. Nash Co., London. 

LAUGHLIN, J. L.: "Credit of the Nations." Scribner's Sons, 
N. Y. 1918. 


MAETZU, RAMIRO DE: "Authority, Liberty and Function in the 
Light of War." Geo. Allen and Unwin. 

DELAISI, FRANCIS: French Opinion, "The Inevitable War." 
Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 1915. 

NEILSON, FRANCIS: English Opinion, "How Diplomats Make 
War." B. W. Huebsch. 1916. 

BY A GERMAN (German Opinion). "J* Accuse!" Hodder & 
Stoughton, London. 1915. 

A 000 687 555 3